2011. március 3., csütörtök

Trullók Dél-Itáliában / Trullo Houses, South Italy

Dél-Olaszország Puglia tartományában találhatóak ezek a különleges építmények. Kötőanyag nélkül helyezték egymásra a köveket. A ’trullo’ jelentése a latin ’trullis’, ’trulla’, vagy a görög ’tholosz’, esetleg a görög-bizánci ’torullosa’ szóból ered, mindegyik jelentése ’Cupola’, azaz kupola/gömbboltozat. A trullóknak többféle típusa létezik. A típusok egyes területekhez köthetők. Egy trulló több kupolaszerű felépítményből áll, a belső terek szeparáltak, amelyek fölé kisebb-nagyobb átmérőjű kőboltozatot emeltek. Egy ilyen boltozat átmérője 4-6 méter között mozog. Némely boltozati terekben fafödémmel képeztek egy felső szintet, amely elsősorban tárolásra szolgált. Az épületen belül elkülönült a főzés helye, a közösségi tér, a kultikus tér, a lakószobák és az állattartás helyiségei.

Dávid Alexandra

2 IV.7 a Abruzzo (Italy, c, e)
The architectural forms of the Abruzzo are sharply marked by its geographic features which influenced economic, social and political assets. The central Apennine mountain range (with the Gran Sasso, 2970 m [9740 ft], and the Maiella, 2793 m [9160 ft]), by isolating this region from the great commercial axes, has kept it in the state of the IVliddle Ages until the late 17th century. In the mountain regions settlements are principally fortified villages of small dimension perched on strategic-defensive points. At the top is a castle, and all around are the houses of the people working for and depending on the ruler, originally a feudal lord charged to maintain a conquered territory. First came the Longobards, then the Normans, followed by the Aragonese and, from the i6th century, the Roman aristocracy. In more peaceful times the landlords replaced the village walls with an enclosing urbanistic design: an ordered plan which reflects a controlled population, as seen in the elliptical map of Castelvecchio Calvisio, the echelon formation of Pescocostanzo or the ghettos' clustered houses of Civ-itaretenga disposed in triangular sectors.
In this melting pot of different civilizations, vernacular architecture reflects heterogeneous and cultivated models. Because of the reduced areas available on peaks or among rocks, houses are often multilevel towers built with stone walls and barrel vaults (as in Castel del Monte). Great attention is paid to the quality of detail: stone outlines of doors and windows are carved with monograms, floral motifs and animal figures. The main local economic activity being transhumant sheep farming, houses do not have stables for the animals; on the ground level is the storehouse, above, a big kitchen and at the higher levels the bedrooms. Apart from a few artisans, the village is permanently inhabited only by old people, women and children; the shepherds used to (and most of them still do) live on mountain pastures, at the foot of the Maiella and of Gran Sasso, in compounds fortified by dry stone walls to protect them from attack by bears and wolves. Inside the walls, dwellings, stables and passages are covered by ogival dry stone vaults. At the onset of winter, shepherds move south towards the abundant Apulian pastures, and all along the transhumance paths, nearly every 30 km (18.5 mi) - the average daily distance - are scattered small churches providing lodgings.
From the 12th century, the more fertile land of hills and plains was colonized by monastic orders which built huge and extraordinary monasteries and distributed lands to the farmers. Farmers' dwellings are widespread in the country, their dimensions extended in order to shelter bigger families. Walls are made of bricks laid in such a way as to create decorative effects, stairs are external, and above the entrance, an open arched gallery allows access to the rooms. There is usually a fretworked pigeon-house centrally placed on the top of the roof
Except for a few harbours or commercial towns (such as Ortona and Lanciano) the Adriatic coast long remained uninhabited because of pirates' attacks; in the hinterland the scattered houses were temporary mud dwellings. Some beautiful examples of this architecture still exist (for instance in Chieti and Casoli) but even in this simple type, the fronts of the houses are decorated with pilasters, capitals, rose windows, and projecting galleries sheltering the external stairs.
Cut off from the economic thrust, and mostly abandoned during the wide emigration movement, the historic centres of Abruzzo have been spared from speculation and vandalism; and the current cultural trend may ensure their ready and fijil recovery.

2,IV 7 b Apulian (Italy, SE)
Apulia bears the imprint of many different dwelling types, whose meaning and raison d'être lie in the culture of the people who settled in this region in protohistorical and historical times. Traces of natural cave shelters can be found in Grav-ina of Materano, in Gargano, and near Peschici, where they are still in use today. The Gargano, its inland zones in particular, and the Murge, are still scattered with wooden huts, which are generally used as storerooms or as temporary dwellings.
The region is dotted with stone constructions, called pacj-ghiere, peculiar to the rural civilization, either used by shepherds as temporary dwellings during the period of seasonal
migration from Abruzzo to Apulia, or by peasants as storage deposits.
Stone constructions are widely diffused in soutiiern and central Apulia, in the Murgc and in Salento, and also in the nearby regions of Abruzzo and Molise; the seasonal migration practised by shepherds between the mountains of Abruzzo and Molise and the Apulian subcoastal plateaux probably enabled the drystone hut to spread outside the original Apulian area.
Before reaching the Murge, more precisely in the area around Canosa, there are some raised drystone huts of quadrangular construction, with a dual sloping roof {no longer pseudo-vaulted), made of tuff square stones, and used as a temporary dwelling for peasants.
The pa^^hiira has its typological counterpart in the trullo, whose building techniques are undoubtedly more advanced. Their widespread distribution throughout the Mediterranean area suggests the existence of mutual influences among different people. Some researchers consider the Apulian trulli to be a continuation of a very ancient tradition, which found its first expression in funeral constructions and which later evolved into different types of building. The trullo passed through different stages: it was originally circular and used as a temporary dwelling in rural areas (archaic phase), then it evolved to a form with circular interior and quadrangular exterior, always located in rural areas (intermediate phase), finally to become completely quadrangular when it was annexed to multicellular aggregations, such as Alberobello. As a result it has become a permanent dwelling, built of regular-shaped stone material and featuring some specific elements (the pseudo-pinnacles), which link the square plan to the circular roof. Usually the trullo has no foundations since it was built on emerging limestone reefs, out of which the building material
was extracted. When it is located near a village, the hollow also acts as a tank for rain-water.
The trullo can be found in areas where agriculture is the first and foremost activity, especially where vineyards and olive trees are cultivated, and where stock-breeding is entirely secondary. Thus the presence of these constructions, as well as of the pacj-flhiere, not only indicates the physical-geographical features of these areas but also their particular economy.
The stone house, which has been documented along the coasts and in the isles of Campania, the isles of Sicily (Eolie, Pantelleria and Ustica), and the island of Giglio (Tuscany), is also quite common in Apulia. It is usually a one-storey construction with a quadrangular plan, with a single room, whose access is ver\' low, without windows, and with the fireplace in its centre. Sometimes it has several rooms, interconnected by means of internal doors and with the same features as the original space. It can feature either a terraced, vaulted cloister (lamia) or barrel roof Since this type of house is usually not isolated, it gives rise to t>'pical villages.
One of the most complex and typical rural types in Apulia is the massena. In this region this term refers either to the permanent or temporary dwelling with characteristics of fortification, or to production centres, as in the massena of the fields, or the massena used as a shelter for sheep.
Numerous variants exist. The massene with a tower are more widespread along the coast, while in the inland areas one can find many types of fortified massene. In the Gargano the building is composite; it has an internal courtyard, is formed of massive two-storey buildings with towers or small circular turrets at the corners, or with projecting watch-towers. Inland from Tavoliere, the region has many composite two-storey massene of considerable size, with turrets at the corners, usually with a courtyard leading to the ground floor - where the stables, the peasants' quarters and the storage deposits are located - and to the first floor which contains the owner's or farmer's quarters. The extreme northwestern area of this region, to the east of the Ofanto, is characterized by the composite two-storey masserie
where the storerooms, built one above another, are flanked by dwellings, the latter usually featuring a terraced roof.
In brief, the numerous variants of tnassene feature some common elements: the use of the same building material, such as square tuff blocks, the vaulted roof and the inner courtyard with a well, which can be paved, cobblestoned or made of packed earth.

2iV7.bH Alberobello
Alberobello is a small village in the area around Bari, in the 'Murgia of trulli', a part of southern Italy characterized by a very high percentage of scattered population, resulting from the breaking up of large estates. It is the largest agglomeration of trulli and it is the only one which can be considered a real town.
Count Gian Girolamo from Acquaviva founded Alberobello in 1635, when he tried to defeat local banditry by lavishing privileges and advantages on those peasants and shepherds who would come to live in the territory.
Two hypothetical reasons can be assumed for the choice of the trullo: the first and most feasible one claims that it could appear as a temporary shelter and be quickly demolished in case of tax controls; the second, linked to the previous theory, assumes that settlers had freely chosen it, without any imposition by feudal law, so as to avoid taxes. Later on peasants understood the advantages and the thrift deriving from those constructions and refined them, giving birth to isolated or grouped trulli, creating truly spontaneous if simple architectural works of art.
The trulli are set along narrow, stepped streets winding from the square, at the foot of the hill. The streets are often irregular: narrowing and widening they mark off neighbourhoods which any town courtyard could recreate. The trulli are located in two different quarters (Monti and Aia Piccola), far from the rest of the village and considered a historic area.
Outside the trullo a paved area serves for collecting rain-water to be subsequentíy drained into a tank below. This space can simply be an enclosure, an aia, or at times an area rising above the ground level so as to create an external extension of the construction. In the country this area is created by different structures placed around it, while in towns it is determined by the peculiarly shaped course of the streets which often create small courtyards.
The grouped trulli of Alberobello are very different from those scattered about the country. While the former are arranged in rows with the front facing the street and, by their serial order, recall the peasants' constructions built at the same time in some developing centres of Apulia and Basilicata (Peschia, Pisticci and Ferrandini), the latter are differendy placed: various units are added either around the main central structure or around a courtyard.
In Alberobello dwellings usually have a rectangular floor plan with a number of conical pseudo-domes, one for each room obtained from the subdivision of the plan. Consequently, the trulli always consist of a number of aggregate units, always axial to the main room, from which the other ones originate. Various arches divide the interior into square rooms featuring conical pseudo-vaults of different height and diameter, which vary in relation to the size of the room. Consequendy the roof reveals the size, importance and use of the rooms.


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