2011. március 26., szombat

Shaanxi löszbarlangok / Yellow Soil Caves in Shaanxi

239. is

Az észak-kínai Sárga-folyó felső és középső szakaszának környéke löszbe vájt barlangokkal van tele. Shaanxiban, Gansuban, Henanban, Shanxiban és a Löszfennsík többi településén a helybeliek löszhegyek oldalába vájnak egymással határos üregeket. A barlangban téglákkal rakják ki a falakat, így tűztől, zajtól védettek lesznek a barlangok; bennük télen meleg, nyáron hideg van. A barlanglakások másik nagy előnye, hogy megspórolják a földet az építők, ugyanis erre nem kell költeni. A természetbe szervesen illeszkedő üreg a legkedvezőbb építészeti stílus, mely azt bizonyítja, hogy a helybeliek szeretik a löszfennsíkot.


2 I 3 c Gansu (Huabei, nw)
Stretching between the deserts of Inner Mongolia to the north and the Tsinghai mountains and plateaux to the south, Gansu province extends to the northwest through the loess of the Yellow (Huanghe) river basin. The shaft-type of troglodytic house (tuinjuiíj yuan shi) is popular in Gansu, being most frequently encountered in the southeast of the province, in Qingyang, Tianshin, Pingliangand Dingsi districts, and also found in Shaanxi, Shanxi and Ilenan provinces: these houses form villages on flat ground. A square or rectangular shaft is dug vertically and constitutes a court\'ard of about 15 m x 15 m (50 ft X 50 ft) which represents an activity space of major importance and to which all the rooms lead. The shafts arc usually about 6 m {20 ft) deep which accounts for the exceptional temperature stability of the habitations which are dug laterally on the southern, eastern and western sides. Generally there arc two or three rooms either barrel-vaulted or cross-vaulted on each side of the courtyard. The northern side is devoted to access and sometimes to a storage room dug in the ground. The main rooms where people live are situated on the southern side. There is either an inclined mud plane leading to the yard or stairs in the central part with an inclined strip on each side. When the difference in level is too great the inclined plane becomes a tunnel where can be found the storerooms for tools, crops and seeds and, at times, for a well.
In some cases, the dwelling is indicated by a built entrance at the starting point of the inclined plane. This construction shows the technical and architectural features of the traditional Chinese house.
The square yard around which are disposed the different rooms of this traditional house is called the 'sk\' shaft'. This name is particularly suitable when applied to that space in shafttype dwellings between the outside open landscape and the privacy of the caves Bevond its functional aspect in the habitation (as main living space and junction point beuveen the rooms) it also allows the existence of a microclimate owing to the radiation from Its walls towaids the central space Sound insulation from one shaft to the shaft next door and from the village noises IS perfect 1 hat insulation (due to the mass of earth separating the dwellings) is maximum m the m un rooms
The vva> the rooms are laid out iround the square vard is the principal common characteristic w ith the traditional pattern of the Han house in the North of China 1 here are other features confirming that the Chinese cave dwelling pattern has not de\ eloped an\ particular form but has adapted a traditional pattern of which It IS the underground version
As in the traditional Chinese house the main rooms bedrooms reception room and room devoted to the ancestors' altar are situated on the side to the south 1 ach one of them is equipped with a kang Ihis cooking heartli and the heat store under a rimmed-earth bed is no different fiom the one which cm traditionalK be found in an\ Chinese house Ihe screen wall (yinqbi) in cave dwellings is another com mon clement with built houses of the same pattern Ihe major function of the screen placed in the \ard opposite the entrance is to prevent evil spirits from entering It is a wall about 2 m (6 5 ft) high, that can be made of rammed earth adobe or baked bricks Where it is made of unbaked earth its base is formed of two or three lasers of baked bricks to protect it from possible water damage It is covered with tiles and there is a small niche in the middle
The neolithic site of Banpo (near Xian in Shaanxi province) harbours numerous traces of pit houses Ihis small-sized rudimentary housing tvpe could be the origin of shaft-type dwellings of which Gansu offers examples of outstanding complexit) or it is possible that it is the ultimate form of the laterally excavated dwellings in which the vard gradually encroached on the loess wall.

1 IV 4 b-i Cave shelter: Han
Cave dwellings (yao dong) in China are almost always cut from loess, a wind-blown deposit with the texture of soft rock. Most are found in the area of the loess plateau, which stretches northeast from the central drainage basin of the Yellow River (Huanghe). This region extends into the provinces of Henan, where lo per cent of the 70 million inhabitants are cave dwellers, Shanxi (with 5 million cave dwellers, a quarter of the rural population), Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai, together with parts of the autonomous regions of Xinjiang, Ningxia-Hui and Inner Mongolia.
An estimated 40 million Chinese live in caves today. However, freestanding terraces of earth-roofed 'caves' (disfiantj) are included in the extension of this term in China. These are earth-sheltered structures where the vault is constructed of stone and adobe blocks - sometimes over formwork of loess, which is then removed by excavation - and later backfilled to level the roofterrace.
Chinese cave dwellings can be divided into those cut horizontally into a steep hillslope and those excavated out from a vertical pit.
In cliff dwellings, a simple side-by-side array is most common, each household having at least two or three caves. Caves may intercommunicate horizontally, so that lateral caves do not need an outside door. Occasionally, the house has a second storey of caves above the first, which may be reached by an external stairway of stone or timber, or accessed inside by a ladder. Earth excavated from the caves is tamped to form access
roads to the terraces, front courtyards and outbuildings like animal pens and latrines. Vegetables are stored in pits (jiaou) within the courtyard area.
The pit dwelling is more suited to a flat site. The courtyard is normally rectangular, around 10 m {33 ft) square and 6 m (20 ft) deep, giving 2.5-3 nn (8-10 ft) overburden above the crown of the cave vaults. Some large pits may be shared by up to ten families. However, in a more typical situation, two generations of a family will share a dwelling, each household having a separate kitchen and living accommodation while latrines and stores are shared. The household of the eldest son usually occupies the caves to the north of the pit, that is, those with the most favourable southern orientation. Parents and younger siblings occupy the east and west sides, while the shady south often has a lean-to construction, or subsidiary stores and latrines. The south, being the less desirable cave aspect, is also most commonly the side on which the entrance ramp or stairway issues. Owing perhaps to the Chinese concern for privacy, there is usually a single or double elbow on the descent, or a screen wall blocking the view from a direct entry. There may be stables opening off this ramp, or a 'farmyard' court giving onto the dwelling pit; and there is often a soakaway for waste water in the centre of the court.
Both cliff and pit type dwellings are composed of groupings of cave elements which are to a large extent standardized within regions. Differences between the three main regions can be seen in the proportions of the cave in plan and section, disposition of internal elements and facade treatment.
In the Longdong region, from southeast Gansu to central Shaanxi, the arched shape of the vault is expressed on the facade by an arch which encloses three openings: door to one side, window to the other and a smaller ventilation opening at top centre. The taller caves are sometimes subdivided horizontally to give an upper garret in timber. The kan^, a raised brick platform heated from within by a sort of hypocaust system, is generally placed beneath the window on the front wall. This is also a common feature ofabove-ground houses in the region. It is used as a bed in winter, and as a dais for taking meals.
Caves in the Yuxi region, from the northern part of Henan to tlte Yellow River, tend towards a bottle-shape opening out towards the interior. Some are very long, particularly in Gongxian county

(Henan), where rooms are excavated in sequence back into tiie cliff face, and separated by cloth screens. Openings are relatively small, but in this more humid region, doors and windows arc usually framed in brick and often surmounted by oversailing courses to throw stormwater clear.
In the Yenan region, northern Shaanxi, the vault is parallel, and semicircular in cross-subsection. Around Yenan itself the use of stone masonr>' for the vault enables the width between adjacent caves to be reduced. Typically, the whole round-arched facade is closed off by a timber latuce screen, filled in with oiled silk or rice-paper around the door and window openings. Allowing light to penetrate deep into the interior enables the kanij to be placed towards the cave's rear.

Shaanxi Gansu_szöv880_81.txt

1 megjegyzés:

Megjegyzés: Megjegyzéseket csak a blog tagjai írhatnak a blogba.