2011. március 4., péntek

Musgum kunyhó Kamerunban / Musgum Hut, Cameroon

Musgum, Mulwi, Moupoui...
http://goo.gl/maps/pTn4G (első tipp)
http://goo.gl/maps/DAxk (második...)
http://goo.gl/maps/yV8W6 (inkább erre, de nem jó a felbontás)

632. oldal, rajzok.
295. építés

A kameruni törzsek kunyhói a mai napig fennállnak. Szilárdan rögzített vázukat faágakból készítik és agyagréteggel vonják be. Példánkban 10 épület vesz körül egy udvart, az épületek nagyjából kör alakban helyezkednek el, közeiket vályogfalak töltik ki. Az egyes épületek belső átmérője 3-4 méter közötti.



1 VIII 3 c Circular
Circular plans are common both for houses and buildings that serve various agricultural functions 1 he circular plan IS often a result of the particular construction system used, but at the same time may result in a symbolically powerful building form More than anv other shape, the circle represents the idea of 'centre and buildings that have the most simple plans, such as circular granaries, may have strong connotations of economic and spiritual value Among the Pueblo of the North American southwest, the kiua is a circular semi-underground room maintained for ceremonial functions, its location symbolizes the emergence of people from the underworld and the connection between earth and heaven, other sacred circular structures are often also symbols of the creation myth
The circular plan is usually of a freestanding, single-room building, but sometimes may be intricate and labyrinthine, such as the kraals of the Ambo and Zulu of Africa, which contain many individual buildings It is more typical in buildings that have wall construction systems that are of earth, small unit masonry, or woven materials rather than those of timber In situations where the wall construction is ofwet mud or sun-baked brick the round plan may be essential to the structural stability of the building I his is also true for the central Asian yurt, which is made of a wooden latticework covered with felt
The use of space within a circular plan may correspond to its geometry, with various members of the family having hxed places around the circumference, in many cases the ceremonial path of movement through the plan is in a particular circumferential direction In many cultures of sub-Saharan Africa, the circle IS the basic plan form for single-room buildings, each housing a particular function or person Usually these buildings are aggregated into compounds that house extended families, and in some cases, such as among the Massa of Cameroon, the compounds themselves take on a circular form In this case the centre is reserved for the head of the family, with huts around the circumference for other members
The circular plan is often found among agricultural build-
ings, including granaries that may be just a few feet in diameter, windmills, animal-driven mills in which the circle accomodates a large wheel that drives the grinding mechanism, grain elevators, and large barns housing animals and farm equipment In these cases, the plan is a direct result of the particular function or mechanism contained within the building

Circular collective dwellings exist among the Yanoama of northern Brazil, where lean-tos housing scores of people form a circular courtyard that may reach around 8o m (260 ft) in diameter, in some cases the lean-tos nearly reach the centre of the circle almost transforming the courtyard into a high interior space In China, collective dwellings in Fujian province are made up of circular courtyards up to 50-60 m (165-200 ft) in diameter surrounded by three storevs of rooms A single entrance provides access to the courtyard, and several stairs give access to interior galleries on the upper two floors Each family may occupy rooms on each of the three floors, using the common stairs to communicate among their rooms



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