2011. március 22., kedd

Taos, Pueblo / Taos, Pueblo

1930. oldal.
328 is valami.


Az egyesült államok déli részén, Arizona államban, rezervátumban élnek a Hopi indiánok. Egyik ismert településük Walpi. Különleges építészeti emlékük a pueblo (= falu) A pueblo sok család otthona, ahogy a neve is mutatja, egy egész falu lakik benne. Az építmények többnyire kőből, vályogból készülnek, és hatalmasak is lehetnek, lényegében sok-sok egymás mellé-egymásra épített házból állnak.

http://inkido.indiana.edu/w310work/romac/hopi.htm http://www.ancestral.com/cultures/north_america/hopi.html http://www.seekeronline.org/journals/y2008/jun08.htm


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Kiva.jpg http://www.radekaphotography.com/images/Taos-Pueblo-L.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/___2AcEs6tBI/TCRqyTiEVTI/AAAAAAAAAAs/tPY-IxYYN48/s1600/Traditional-village-of-Walpi.gif

Chapó Zsolt

3.VI.7.e     Keres (nm)
There are two major linguistic groups among the ig Pueblo Indian tribes of New Mexico, Keresan and Tanoan (including Towa, Tiwa and Tewa). Keres people reside at the
pueblos of Santa Domingo, San Felipe, Cochiti, Santa Ana and Zia which are on or near the Rjo Grande some 50 km (30 mi) north of Albuquerque, New Mexico and at Acoma and Laguna pueblos located 100 km (60 mi) west of Albuquerque in dry canyon lands.
Keres pueblos have followed traditional pueblo planning and construction methods in old village centres and more contemporary building outside traditional centres. Traditional construction is of adobe at river pueblos and stone with adobe at Acoma and Laguna. River pueblos use circular kiua structures, Acoma and Laguna use rectilinear kwas built into housing blocks. The kiua is a religious structure where the sacred dances and oral history of the pueblo are learned.
The Spanish constructed mission churches at all Keres pueblos in the 1600S. rhePuebloansdid not allow church structures within the main area of the pueblo; all stand at the pueblo perimeter. Today, Pueblo religion and Catholicism are both practised simultaneously.
Hopi village of walpi stands on the first Mesa, a narrow ridge of yellow sandstone rock. Arizona
Houses in the Hopi village of Walpi access to the kiva m the foreground

Acoma pueblo may be the most famous of all Keresan pueblos because of its spectacular location atop the 120 m (400 ft) high Acoma mesa (flat-topped stone mountain). Structures date to pre-Columbian times, exhibiting traditional pueblo planning, orientation, massingand appearance. Traditional construction is of flat stone-masonr\' units bound with an adobe mortar, then surfaced with adobe plaster. Roof structures are flat and constructed in the traditional manner. Floor surfaces are rock or packed adobe. Water is collected from large natural rock cisterns which store the accumulated rainwater.
In 1640 the Acoma people, under Spanish supervision, built the church of San Esteban at the edge of the mesa top. This most impressive of mission churches possesses a basilica plan, some 45 m (140 ft) long and 9 m (30 ft) wide, rising to 9 m (30 ft) on the interior of the nave. The walls are some 1.8 m (6 ft) thick or more at the base, tapering to 0.6 m (2 ft) at the roof level. The interior is stark with whitewashed walls, an adobe floor and simple folk decoration. The roof is supported by massive vigas transported from Mt Taylor's ponderosa pine forest, some 65 km (40 mi) away. The church is fronted by two massive square bell-towers and the two-storey convento is attached to the north side of the church. In front of the church is the tam-posanto, sacred burial ground, which is surrounded by an adobe wall containing facial images, representing watchful spirits.
In leaving their ancestral home on the mesa, the Acoma have moved to residences in the nearby valley at Acomita and to their traditional farming village at North Pass, now called McCartys. New architecture follows formats inspired by the US Bureau of Indian Affairs. Houses are detached, single-family units of modern design. There are modern community centres, schools, banks and so on. Construction is standard wood frame, steel, concrete and stucco. Nothing of the traditional is carried over into the new, in either planning or substance.
After extensive 20th-century change, the Acoma have been encouraged to restore their ancient mesa pueblo to its original form with preservation grants. New additions follow traditional plans but use modern materials foreign to traditional building methods, such as mass produced adobe brick, milled lumber, stucco and aluminium windows. A majority of the first-floor dwelling units, the kwas and mission San Esteban still retain traditional construction.                


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