2011. március 10., csütörtök
Ndebele ház / Ndebele House
Dekorációról: 577. oldal.
A színes ndebele törzs Dél-Afrikából.
Több ház néz egy közös udvarra, a ház oldalsó és hátsó falai egyszerűbb színezést kaptak, az udvar felőli homlokzat volt a legdíszesebb. A falak festésénél nem használtak semmiféle szerkesztő eszközt, kézzel festették a geometriai formákat használó díszítést. A ndebele törzs családokból épül. A családok régebben a kör alakú épületet használták mindennapi teendőjükhöz, ott főztek, aludtak, stb. Külön helye volt a férfiaknak és a nőknek. Manapság csak a hagyományos szertartásokhoz használják a köralakú épületet. Az épület 6-8 méter átmérőjű kör fallal határolt, anyaga fonott növényi vázra tapasztott sár/tehéntrágya.
kép1, kép2, kép3, kép4, kép5, kép6
1vii5b-i Facades: Ndebele
An Nguni group of South-central Africa, the Southern Ndebele live in the southern and eastern Transvaal in the vicinity of Pretoria and Magdeburg. Formerly known by the Boers as the Mapog (M'pogga) they are farmers and pastoral-ists, who locate their houses on elevated sites and northern, sun-facing slopes where this is possible.
Though earlier houses built under Pedi influence were circular in plan the Ndebele soon adopted a rectangular form with a front courtyard, (lapa) surrounded bya wall, 1.5 m (5 ft) ormore in height. The lapa is divided between a front reception area and a rear cooking area. The house is constructed of poles and a lattice work of branches, mud-packed and plastered. The men construct the roof but the rest of the building and the painting is done by the women. The houses are the right and property of the women and are permitted to collapse with their death.
Clay benches are built along the walls of the house and are double-tiered in the front. An imposing gateway is built, frequently bridged or with the gateposts capped and moulded. The interior faces of the front lapa and inner lapa walls are painted grey with a chevron pattern of white lines. The principal surfaces for decorative painting are the walls facing the
front, including that of tiic house and the front lapa wall on which are displayed a bold and dramatic art.
It is likely that the style of painting for which the Ndebele are famed commenced around 1940, probably under the original influence of the Sotho whose painted litema (furrowed) decorations were symmetrical and sometimes used playing card motifs or hearts, clubs and diamonds on shield patterns. Walls were often outlined in thick black lines, and in some, the 'centripetal' designs, the shapes encroached on a white space from the surrounds. Ndebele women used natural earth colours and clays, including raw and burnt sienna. Black was obtained from clay and soot or stove black, white from slaked lime, a range of blues from earths and a strong hue from the use of Reckitts Blue, a brand of colouring added to the laundry to 'whiten' it.
The motifs used by the Ndebele women slowly changed over a half century. In the late 19403 the designs largely comprised stepped motifs which related to the patterns on their white leather cape decorations. Body ornaments and bead decorations on clothing may all have influenced these earlier patterns. By the 1950s gables and pediments from Pretoria buildings were incorporated on the walls of houses nearer the city, including the minarets and dome of the Indian mosque, and the stars and crescents of its decoration (Meiring). 20 years later in the 1970s the former so-called 'archaic' style still existed, but houses, steps, flowers and telegraph poles were incorporated into some designs (Spence and Biermann).
A woman normally paints after the birth of the first child, but under her mother's guidance. The purchase of matching clothing after decorating the house, emphasizes both its expression of her role and her domestic pride. Walls are painted approximately every two years and become more individual in the process, so that with the next generation of daughters some progression in design is evident.
The importance of a strict symmetry as well as a hierarchy of main house to lesser buildings, or the balance between the houses of two wives in polygamous families, and the functions of architectural space in large complexes built in the 1950s, was recorded in the late 1970s. High levels of painting skills were evident, as were the intrusions of veranda details, Moroccan motifs, and even jet planes (Rich).
It has been argued that the paintings represented a form of implicit black political protest during the apartheid period (Frescura). With the establishment of the KwaNdebele Homeland in 1975 the tradition began to decline as Ndebele moved from former locations and some of the most remarkable painted houses were allowed to collapse.