2011. március 7., hétfő

Skót "fekete házak" / Black Houses, Scotland

A Skót Felföldön épített kőházak a tájkép szerves részei. Az épületek neve ("black house") nem a homlokzatra, a több évszázad alatt befeketedett kövekre utal. A legalább 150 évvel ezelőtt épített tradicionális kőházakban az emberek és a jószágaik egy épületben éltek, az egyik végén a "lakás", a másik végén az "istálló" helyezkedett el (ez hasonlít a magyar népi építészetben a magyar tornácos ház és a mezőgazdasági építmények lineáris elrendezésére). A két helyiséget általában csak egy egyszerű nádból készült "válaszfal" határolta le. A beszélő nevet akkor kapták, mikor az 1800-as években olyan - szintén kőből épült - építmények is megjelentek a Skót Felföldön, amelyekben az állatok és az emberek szeparált épületrészekben tartózkodtak. Ez volt az ún. "white house" amivel ellentébe állítva kapták a "black house" elnevezést az említett épületek.
A ház falai gyakorlatilag "maghőszigeteltként" épültek: két réteg szárazon rakott kőfal között rést hagytak, melyet sárral és földdel tömtek ki. A tető a belső falrétegre támasztott szarufákra rakott vastag zsúpfedésből állt, melyet az erős szelek miatt a legtöbbször kövekkel terheltek le a széleken. Kémény nem volt az épületeken, a döngölt földpadlón rakott tűz füstje a tetőn keresztül jutott ki. Az épületek jellemzően nem voltak nagyobbak egy magyar háromosztatú parasztháznál. Egyes "black house"-okban még az 1970-es években is éltek, sok ma is jó állapotban van, esetleg múzeumként felújítva látogatható.


Viszoki Csaba

2.Ill 8.J Orkney (Scotland, North Sea Is)
Orkney is the southernmost of the two archipelagos forming the northern isles of Scotland. The archipelago measures 92 km (57 mi), north to south, by 44 km (27 mi), east to west.
The distance from the Scottish mainland is only 10 km (6 mi) and the original inhabitants are from the same stock as colonized Britain. The Vikings set up settlements from the 6th century and by 1098 the Norse influence was such that the Earls of Orkney swore allegiance to the Norwegian Crown. Norse dominance continued until 1468 when James III of Scotland married Margaret of Denmark. The dowry was 60000 florins: 2000 florins in currency, Orkney valued at 50000 florins, and Shetland at 8000. The Danes intended to redeem the territories but this did not happen. The isles were administered as a stew-ardry, then as two counties and recently as two regional island councils.
Orkney is a fertile area, the economy based on mixed farming, fishing and trade. Its position, with Shetland, separates the North Sea from the Atlantic Ocean, a little north of Skagerrak and the entrance to the Baltic Sea. Traders wishing to travel by sea between north and south Europe, avoiding the English Channel, had to pass through or round the northern isles.
The Orkney landscape is virtually treeless and the geological base is mainly sandstone in the form of flagstone, which is exposed at many places round the coastline and can be quarried using the simplest of levers. Abundant supplies of readily available flagstone, at an important crossroads, have resulted in Orkney having some of the oldest dwelling houses in Europe. Masonry walled houses, now roofless but otherwise complete, with stone slab furnishings and internal partitions have been excavated at a number of sites, most notably Knap of Ilowar, Papa Westray, 3600-3100 BC, and Skara Brae on mainland Orkney, 3100-2500 bc.
The surviving i8th and 19th century vernacular buildings on Orkney have many details in common with these neolithic
houses but the plan forms are quite different. The later plan forms, like their relatives in northern Scodand, the Hebrides, Shetland and western Norway are derived from housetypes introduced by Viking settlers. In their simplest form they comprise room, kitchen and byre in a single volume measuring 22 m (72 ft) X 5 m (16 ft); they are open to the apex of the roof with minimal rooflights lighting the interior. According to i8th-centur)' descriptions farmhouses were largely built of turf and the internal space was subdivided by pieces of furniture.
The present survivals of this building type are all masonry structures not dissimilar to the turf structures of the i8th century. In smaller houses, the room, kitchen and byre are divided by masonry gables. The kitchen is further subdivided by the backstone to the hearth, the kitchen remaining on the hearth side of the backstone: the scullery, with the smoke-hole for the fire, on the other side. In larger houses, the backstone becomes an internal gable. The north wall of the kitchen often contains a number of bedshots with flagstone fronts and curtained openings. Larger houses have additional byres, stable, barn, corn kiln, chaulmer, implements store and outhouses added in linear form or in parallel ranges with mutual walls.
In the treeless landscape, structural timber was always in short supply. Driftwood was used as were substitutes including whalebone, flagstone and simmons (straw or heather rope). Flagstone was used structurally. Closely spaced simmons were used running from eaves to eaves over the ridge and purlins to form an inclined deck. Both flagstone and simmons
decks were thatched with straw or turf, held in place with yet more closely spaced simmons weighted with flagstone at the eaves. When flagstones were used the pitch was often very low - 15° to 20°; with closely spaced simmons, the pitch is usually between 40° and 50°.

2 III 8 j-i Shetland (North Sea is; Scotland)
The Shetland Isles are a compact group, no km (70 mi) north to south and 60 km (37 mi) east to west. Two islands lie outside this main group: Foula, 28 km (17 mi) to the west and Fair Isle, 32 km (20 mi) to the south, almost half way between Sumburgh Head at the south end of Shetland and North Ronaldsay, Orkney. The main town is Lerwick which is closer to Bergen in Norway than to the mainland of Scodand.
The Shedand landscape is generally less ferule and more mountainous than Orkney, while the coastíine is more rocky with dramatic cliffs and distant views. The geology is also quite different, only Sumburgh having easily quarried sandstone.
The vernacular buildings of Shedand developed in a similar way to those of Orkney although the archaeological survival rate is less spectacular. Jarlshof on the sandstone promontory at Sumburgh is the excepdon with almost complete buildings dating from 2400 BC to the medieval period. The Viking houses are less complete than the earlier and later buildings and appear to have been constructed of alternaring layers of stone and turf surrounding a timber-framed and lined carcass.
Timber-lined buildings faced externally with turf were still to be found in the early years of the 20th century. These were similar in form to the Norse-style houses in Iceland such as the Stong farmhouse, to Viking House No. 6 at Jarlshof and to a Viking house recentíy excavated at Papa Stour. Shedand has the same scarcity of timber as described in Orkney - the umbers for the houses being imported from Norway from the first Viking setdements until the i6th century when Earl Patrick commandeered the ships involved in the trade. Timber boats were suU being imported in the 19th century. Like the buildings, these arrived in kit form and were assembled in Shedand.
The igth-centuiy vernacular buildings are generally masonry walled and similar in plan form to Orkney longhouses. The basic house comprised a room, kitchen and byre but was generally higher in the walls and steeper in roof pitch than its Orkney counterpart, and was thatched. The elements of the plan are separated by masonry gables, the roof stepping down from house to byre at the appropriate gable. The kitchen also often has a parual loft. The ancillary buildings can be at right angles or parallel to the house, often with mutual walls or narrow passageways.

Scotland black_szov1393_94.txt

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