2011. március 6., vasárnap

Izlandi gyepházak / Traditional Turf Houses, Iceland

A sajátos izlandi időjárás alakította földdel-gyeppel burkolt házak. Falai kőből, fából készültek. A hagyományos típusaiban helye volt az állatoknak, az embernek is külön-külön. főzőhelyiséggel, padokkal, ágyakkal, jellemzően egy légtérben. Egyetlen nyílása a bejárati ajtó volt, illetve még egy füstlyuk szolgált a füst elvezetésére a belső tűzrakóhely felett. A családfő és felesége számára egy szekrényszerű lakószoba épült belül. A ház sokszor a föld alá is befutott, kihasználva a terep adottságait, így viszonylag nagy területen nyúlt el egy-egy ilyen ház. A gyepház 1-2 méter vastag falai 3-4 méter széles, és 10-12 méter hosszú belső teret zártak körül. A linkek között található példa 28 méter hosszú házra is.

technikák, szerkezet, külső, belső

Őry Balázs

2 III 8 c Faeroese (North Sea Is)
The Faeroes (Foroyar) (62°N, 7°W) are situated between Iceland and Scotland The average temperature for July IS about 10 °C (50°F) and for January about 4 °C (39 °F) The 18 rocky islands - besides small islets and skerries - are of volcanic origin and composed of strata of basalt and tuff The
highest mountain is 882 m (2893 ft) Grass grows on the mountainsides and in the valleys, and, from the earliest times, sheep have grazed freely on the outfields, which has influenced the vegetation
The Faeroes were setded in Viking times by people from Norway, who, in the course of time, developed their own cultural characteristics and the Faeroese language From the time of the earliest settlement (landnam), the economic base has been a combination ofagriculture fishery and other natural resources such as whales, seals and birds In certain respects the islanders were self-sufficient and also able to export goods dried fish, wool, and, after the 19th century also split cod Apart from driftwood, all timber was imported
People lived in villages, where the houses were built on a selected open place (lieimrust) A village was characterized by its cultivated infields and uncultivated outfields, clearly divided by a stone wall, which nowadays is often replaced bv a wire fence Cattíe grazed on the outfields m summer and were stall-fed in winter The sheep were outside all the year round
From the middle of the 19th century, Faeroese split cod came onto the world market This economic upturn brought about changes in style ofbuilding and the cultural landscape In most of the big villages large areas were paved with flat stones for drying the fish Warehouses and landing stages also became part of the shore architecture
Ihe traditional Faeroese agriculture was spade-husbandrv without the use of ploughs A particular cultural characteristic of the old infields, which has now disappeared in the big villages, IS the narrow strips of land bounded by ditches (teyal endi) Characteristic of the outfields are the dry stone boundaiy walls and the walls built in the shape of a horseshoe (bol or itipoa) as shelters for the sheep in bad weather Several times a year the sheep were driven into folds which resembled the shelters (bol) but were larger Many old sheepfolds can still be seen Peat was cut in the outfields and the dried peat was stored in a kroiju a structure of piled-up stones, which when it was full was covered with turf and stones Often several of these shelters for storing turf lay side by side, resembling graves
Ihere have been three main types of dwelling house in the Faeroc Islands Ihe first was the longhouse of Viking times with Its fireplace in the centre, and this was followed by the second type, the traditional Faeroese roykstoua (literally, 'smoke room'), a wooden stave structure with outer walls built of stone This style of building is found in the oldest of the Faeroese wooden churches Intime one or more of the outer stone walls was replaced by wooden boarding Sleeping accommodation consisted of bunks that utilized the hollow space, right out to the outer stone wall In the i8th century another room (glasstova) was added to the roykstoua In contrast to the roykstoua, which only had an opening in the roof to let smoke out and light in, the^lasstoua had windows in one side The economic advances in the 19th century allowed the big farmers to add more livmg-rooms and bedrooms to their original roykstoua These were mainly for entertaining visitors and indicated a certain social standing
At the end of the 19th century, a new, third type of house replaced the old traditional house It was a three-storey house

with a basement tliat was used as a byre, for storage and so on, a first floor with two main rooms and a bedroom, and a second floor with two or more bedrooms. These houses varied in size, and in the most prestigious the outer walls were continued upwards to allow attics to be made. Three-storey houses form the core of many older villages. A great variety of houses have come since World War 11, both standard types of houses and individually designed houses.
A number of outbuildings formed part of the traditional Faeroese house or farm: a byre, and buildings for storing hay and for dr>'ing meat. Most of these were stave-built structures in which the roof was made of rafters and covered with turf but roofs with horizontal beam structures were found on simpler structures. The byre might be a simple freestanding building, but in the traditional Faeroese house the byre was built as an extension of the roykstoua. Where the building site was suitable, the byre could be in the basement of the house. Hay was stored in a large stack (des), but there were also special buildings for the storage of hay. These are probably fairly recent. A special outbuilding (hjaliur) was used for drying and storing food. The outbuilding for drying corn (sornhus) was usually shared by the whole village or part of the village. Buildings to house hens and geese were often very simple structures. In some places potatoes were stored in a special building (epiahus), which was built of earth and stone and had a door that closed tightly so that the potatoes would be protected from frost.
Boats were kept in boathouses (neyst). These were built of stone and had roofs made of rafters covered with turf Boathouses were usually built adjacent to one another, and at times were so low that the gable had to be removed in order to get the boat out.
Some outbuildings were situated close to the house, but they could also be quite a long way from the house. This was particularly the case with buildings in which food was dried and stored. These were situated in the most suitable places for their function, and often outbuildings belonging to several different owners were gathered at the same place.

Turf houses_szov1386_87.txt

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