2011. március 21., hétfő

Vert vályog ház Szíriából / Mud House, Syria

Szíria népi építészete elég összetett. Éghajlatából adódóan sokféle építőanyaggal, és ezáltal sokféle tradícionális házzal találkozunk. Főleg Damaszkusz vidékén volt jellemző, hogy vert vályogból építkeztek. A házak fala 50-60 cm, de akár az egy métert is elérheti. A nyílások mérete korlátozott volt. A maximális méret az 1,2m x 0,9 méteres ajtó volt. E mellett csak 20-40/40 centiméteres szellőző nyílásokat alakítottak ki. A szemöldökfák általában egyenesek voltak. A házak födéme is vályogból készült: vályog kupolával fedték le helyiségeiket, ami általában 30-40 cm vastag volt, és akár a hét méteres magasságot is elérhette.


Vagy: Sarouj / Hamah

Vagy: Aleppo

Ferenczy Kinga

2lV4f Idlib (Syria, Nw)
On the steppes of Idlib and Aleppo in northern Syria, the domed house has characterized the local architecture for thousands of years. This is an age-old building technique employed m these semi-arid regions to create a covered space without recourse to any materials other than the earth.
Perfectly adapted to its physical and social environment, the dome offers man an ideal shelter from the arduous and hostile climate. Requiring only a minimum of technical knowledge and still put up in the original manner, by the peasants themselves, it is the most economical of all methods of construction known in the rural Syrian world.
Its construction of adobe in the form of bricks of sun-dried mud, measuring i8 cm x 35 cm x 7 cm (7 in x 14 in x 3 in), is original: concentric layers of bricks are built up in circles of progressively decreasing diameters, built directly onto the ground, and adhered together with cob-mortar; neither foundation nor framework nor scaffolding is used. On the outside of the house protruding stones are squeezed in between the horizontal layers of bricks which form the sides; with the help of these stones it is possible to climb up the structure to recast it or restore it every spring.
Each layer precariously overlaps the preceding one on the inside of the house until the hole is entirely filled in; the walls and roof are thus formed at one and the same time. Thus the whole edifice consists of a big conical skullcap of round section and diameter rarely exceeding 3-5 m (10-16 ft) in height. It is the same technique as is used for corbelled vaults.
Ventilation of the inner space is effected by a small opening in the wall, made by leaving a gap between bricks of the same layer. Making a large opening in a cupola is a much more complex operation as the nature of the structure requires that the
edifice be a single compact block. A large opening would be perilous to the solidity and resistance of the dome, meaning, as it would, the absence of a wall; the incline of the sides and fragility of the structure itself prevent windows being put in.
The entrance to the house is made by forming a large opening in the wall. Two adobe pillars protruding towards the outside are placed on either side of the entrance and are topped by a wood lintel supporting the upper layers of the wall. A rectangle of wood frames the opening of the entrance to hold the door. To protect the construction against damp and erosion a layer of well packed adobe, covered over with glazing, is applied to the lower layers of bricks on the exterior, and the whole structure is roughcast in thin successive layers of clay. Finally it is all whitewashed for thermal and aesthedc reasons.
Inside the cupola, the ground is beaten earth raised by 20-30 cm (8-12 in). An arch of unfired earthen bricks embedded into the wall forms a kind of peasant cupboard (al coutoubiyah). On the same side as the entrance-way, the rural hearth (al maouked) is built to serve as a fireplace during the winter. A thin layer of whitewashed clay covers the walls up to a height of 1.8 m (6 ft).
To the north and east of Idlib, where this architecture grows more widespread, the conical cupola rising straight up from the ground gives way to the cupola resting on a cubic base larger than the dome itself This cubic base is made of four vertical walls varying between 70 cm (2.3 ft) and 2 m (6.5 ft) in height, doubled on the outside to absorb the lateral forces and to ensure that the building is of maximum solidity and inertia.
The construction of the walls of the cubic base is similar to the method used for Mediterranean houses. To build the dome roof the square design of the cubic base is rounded with the aid of wooden supports or monoliths. This technique permits a larger space to be covered by the juxtaposition of two identical constructions. The opening of an arch made of mud-bricks in the median wall facilitates communication between the rooms. In this style of house where the dome acts as roof the vertical walls of the cubic base render the interior space more functional.
The cupola built for living in faces south to catch the weak rays of the winter sun, and faces away from the predominant west wind, thus avoiding draughts. To complete the building, the site is demarcated by an adobe enclosure about 1.5 m (5 ft) high, built in order to surround the house and to create in front of it an uncovered area, an open-air yard for the family's various daily and agricultural activities.


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