2011. február 28., hétfő

Kecsua ház Peruban / Quechua House, Peru

A falai jellemzően kőből, a tetőfedés szalmából készül. A quechuák kokacserjéből és egyéb gyűjtögetésből élnek, társadalmuk, hitük alapja a család. Egy-egy ilyen kunyhó a hegyvidéki vándorlás-gyűjtögetés alkalmával szolgálhat hajlékul. Valószínüleg időről időre az épület megújul, legalábbis tetejét cserélni kell. Alapterülete kb. 3 x 6 méter, ovális formájú. Egyetlen bejárattal, belül egy helyiséggel.

még egy quechua ház

Őry Balázs

3 V2 J Collasuyu Quechua (Argentina, n, Bolivia; Chile, n)
Collasuyu was the southernmost of the four kingdoms of the Inca empire (Taujontinsuyu) and covered what is nowadays the Andean area of Bolivia, as well as parts of northern Argentina and Chile. Quechua is the main language in highland Bolivia, especially the departments of Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Potosi' and is spoken in the countryside and small towns. Monolingual Quechua speakers are referred to as campcsinos, the term 'Indian' having fallen from use since the revolution of 1952.
The Quechua-speaking region ranges from 4000 m (13 100 ft) to 1500 m (5000 ft) in altitude. The population depends on subsistence agriculture and livestock, mainly sheep and goats, which are grazed on common pastureland. The flat upland
pampas are relatively productive and are given over to potatoes, barley, wheat and broad beans; the lower slopes are typically poorer and are more subject to erosion. The most fertile areas are the irrigated valley bottoms which can produce two or three harvests a year; below 2800 m (9200 ft) maize becomes the principal crop, accompanied by peanuts, potatoes and a variety of vegetables and fruits.
Most rural settlements are dispersed or semi-dispersed, with the houses situated on or close to the permanently cultivated lands. Until the revolution of 1952 most of the land in highland Bolivia was divided into large estates, and the peasant farmers were obliged to carry out unpaid work in the landlord's house and fields. Most of the estate lands and houses have since been abandoned, but they often form the nucleus of the present-day communities. In recent years some communities have established nucleated setdements, mainly to avail themselves of a piped water supply, or occasionally electricit>', and to be near the village school or health post. Houses are usually occupied by a nuclear family, which may be extended to include an aged relative or a recendy married son, or perhaps daughter, spouse and small children.
In the upland areas a house is usually surrounded by a high wall, 2.5 m (8 ft) in height, and comprises two or three separate rooms, each of about 3 m x 4 m (10 ft x 13 ft), facing inwards into a small courtyard. One or two of the rooms will be used as sleeping accommodation and the others as storage space, for tools, grain and potatoes. A kitchen is also located within the courtyard, although it may be no more than a roof over the hearth.
The walls are all built of adobes or of rough stone laid with mud-mortar, and the top of the outer wall is covered with straw or branches (uiaylla) to protect it from rain. In some houses the walls are plastered and in others the adobe or rough stone is left exposed. In southern I'otosi there are more regularly finished stone walls, slates being used to give the walls a smooth exterior. The roofs are thatched, using grass (ichu) or branches (sunchu) or, in the more prosperous villages, covered with fired tiles; the thatch or tiling is laid over a framework ofcanes and in some cases there is a false ceiling of cloth. The floors are typically of beaten earth, cobblestones or slates.
On the lower slopes of the valleys the houses are adapted to the warmer conditions and to the steep terrain. The patio is often built up with as much as i m (3 ft) of dry stones and rather than being surrounded by high walls, the house looks out over
the valley Attheback there is an open room up to lo m (33 ft) in length, used to receive visitors and for sleeping in warm weather In some areas particularly where rural communities have regrouped into nucleated settlements development agencies have promoted an uiban stvle of housing, with hred bricks and tin fibro-cement or tiled roofs and glass windows Ivpicallv, these houses comprise only one or two rooms and the> lack the privacy of the traditional constructions indeed, in some cases the new constructions have simply been used for storage while the families continue to live in their old houses.


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