2011. február 21., hétfő

Inuit iglu / Inuit Igloo

1795. oldal: Iglulik, Baffin island


3 VM f Iglulik (Baffin Island, lab nwt)
The Iglulik's domain includes the northwest shores of Hudson Bay, Melville Peninsula, and northern Baffin Island They and their 'neighbours' (Baflfinland Eskimos and Inuit of Quebec to the east and southeast. Caribou Eskimos to the south, and Netsilik and Copper Eskimos to the west) constitute the Central Eskimos (Inuit) All were semi-nomads who focused primarily on seals or caribou
Sheltering up to 50 people in as many as 10 conjoined snow houses, Iglulik winter villages were built near the shore or on sea-ice Construction ideally required two men, one to cut snowblocks, the other to build with them Blocks came from what would be the tunnel and sunken front half of the floor After erecting a circular row some 5 m (16 ft) in diameter, the builder cut down part of it diagonally to facilitate the subsequent spiralling blocks of this parabolic main dome Added next were a pond-ice window, facing south towards daylight, and a vent-hole overhead, while women and children chinked holes with snow chunks and shovelled snow to insulate the exterior Built last, tunnels effectively reduced air drafts Practised teams could finish a house m an hour or less
Brush, baleen strips, and/or furs covered the large rear platform that served residents day and night Small side platforms were for storage and the essential mammal oil lamp, above which hung a cooking pot and drying rack I wo families might
share a sleeping platform, each to its own side of the platform, at which women regulated the lamp for heat and light.
Snow houses varied. Tunnels were either domed or flat-walled and -roofed. Cut into the front face of platforms, niches permitted extra storage. Copper Eskimo dances took place in an appended dome, and low exterior walls kept winds from eroding the residential dome. Only Caribou Eskimos cooked over heather fires in an antechamber. In spring, they removed their main dome's melting centre and substituted a skin roof, whereas Copper Eskimos used poles to create flat or gabled skin roofs as the weather warmed.
Central Eskimos split into small family units in summer and lived m tents of two types, ridge or conical. Covers of sewn caribou or seal furs were weighted with rocks or other materials. Iglulik tents were perhaps 2-3 m x 5 m (6.5-10 ft x 16 ft) and used a centre pole topped with a short crosspiece at the rear. A thong connected that pole to a front one, acting as ridge and guy line. Caribou Eskimos and some Inuit of Québec lived in conical tents with protruding poles and laced-up covers; Netsilik tents were centre-pole cones with radiating weighted thongs that spread the cover. Copper Eskimos modified the basic cone by adding a ridge pole and enlarging the cover forward.
Like other Central Eskimo autumn houses (qarmats) designed for one or two families, the Iglulik version had stone, bone and turf walls beneath a skin roof Iglulik also built an ice-slab, skin-roofed house of octagonal plan 4 m (13 ft) in diameter.


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