2011. február 22., kedd

Mudhif / Mudhif

Errefelé lehettek mudhifok, amíg az iraki vezetés le nem csapolta a mocsarakat:
...inkább a háború nyomai?

666. oldal, alaprajz.

A mudhif egy vendégház, fogadóhelyiség, tanácskozóhely és szállás egyszerre a mocsári araboknál, a madan népcsoportnál, a mai Irak déli részén. A nádból emelt hosszúkás csarnokban egy-egy eseményre akár nyolcvan ember is összegyűlik. Egyterű, csarnokszerű épület, bejárata a muszlim kor óta mindig Mekka felé néz. Imahely is, ha nincs más szentély a településen. A falu vezetői itt fogadják a vendégeket, akik itt is alhatnak. Kisebb falvakban mindig ez a legnagyobb ház. A körülbelül 10 méter hosszú nádat csomóba kötötték, majd parabolikus íveket formáltak. Az legősibb mudhifek 2 méter szélesek, 6 méter hosszúak és kicsit kevesebb, mint 3 méter magasak voltak.

belső fotó

Futár Dóra &

1 IX 1 g Guest-house' mudhif (Ma dan)
Of all the Ma dan buildings of the huphrates marshes the guest-house (mudliif) is the largest It takes the form of a large chamber with an arched structure, ranging in size from 7 5 m (25 ft) to 30 m (100 ft) in length and 3 m (10 ft) to 4 5 m (15 ft) in width Traditionally it employs an odd number of arches which may range from 7 to 17 The end walls are supported by four reed pillars or palm-trunk pillars faced in reed two taller central ones flanking the doorless entrance two lowei ones to mark the corners Often a dark green or black flag IS stuck into one of these pillars, particulaily during Muslim festivals Ihe end walls have intricate lattice-work patterns above the doorways and in the smaller flanking openings which match the status of the mudhif s size
The mudhij owes its origin to the tents in which pre-Islamic Bedouin sheiks entertained and accommodated travellers. These brought esteem on sheik and guest alike, in much the same way as the European hall used to do, since hospitality was an important duty. This need was transferred to the marshes, particularly the marshes on the west side of the Tigris where the influence of Bedouin customs has been stronger. Here, its accommodation took on a semi-permanent guise in the form of the largest possible form of reed-built chamber as opposed to the transportable form of a tent that it had formerly assumed.
In much the same way as the European aristocratic hall came to be built by people lower in society in the late Middle Ages, so was the mudhijin comparatively recent times. The decline in the power of sheikdoms and their eventual abolition saw the mudhif taken up by ordinary tribesmen. So what had begun as a place where a sheik would officiate at meetings of the tribesmen to hold a council of war, a court of justice, a discussion of lesser economic or social matter, or to perform a religious rite, became a more general social centre where tribesmen drank coffee with their headsman at sunrise before work, and to a lesser extent in the afternoon, and took part in feasts and religious ceremonies.
The ceremonial serving of coffrée is still a major function of the mudliif. Near the entrance the headsman tends to the brewing of coffee in a brass pot heated over a small fire where small pats of buffalo dung burn with intense heat. In the winter, the fire is placed nearer the centre of the mudhif. Beyond the fire, the floor of the mudhijmay be richly carpeted. Some mudhijs have a second entrance in the further end for the purpose of admitting servants. Guests gather on cushions placed down each side of the mudhif and recline on the low reed rail attached to the insides of the arches. Where they sit depends on social status, the more favoured sitting nearer the fire. The lower the owner of a mudhif is socially, the less formality is observed. Even so, formality determines how everyone is addressed and governs conversation generally, as each person sips coffee from small brass cups, or takes part in the full etiquette of a feast.


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