2011. február 17., csütörtök

Fucsien Tulou / Fujian Tulou

605. oldal talán

A Fucsien Tulou meghatározása a következő: "Döngölt föld falakból és fa vázzal épült többemeletes erődített épület a délkelet-fucsieni hegyvidéki térségben, amelyben nagy lakóközösség él". (The Fujian Tulou is defined as: "A large multi storey building in southeast Fujian mountainous region for large community living and defense, built with weight bearing rammed earth wall and wood frame structure.") Nagyobbrészt kerek formájúak, de előfordul négyzet alaprajzú is.
Még ma is több, mint 20.000 tulou van, a legrégebbiek 700 évesek. Általában 3-5 szintesek, átmérőjük elérheti a 60 métert. Egyes épületekben akár 80 család is lakik. A külső gyűrűben a lakások, belül a földszinten közösségi épületek találhatók


Jancsó Miklós

2 I 4 e Fujian (Huanan, e)
The vernacular architecture of Fu)ian province, in southeastern coastal China, has been shaped by geography, historical factors such as periodic ethnic migrations, and by the availability of various building materials The region can be divided into two distinctive building types brick houses of coastal Fu)ian, and the rammed earth houses of mountainous western Fu)ian Two other building tvpes, the timber-framed houses of northeastern Fu|ian and the stepped, horse-gable-
roofed masonr\ houses of northern and northwestern I u|iaii draw heaviK from the vernaculai architecture of neighbouiing Jiangxi and Zhe|iang provinces Despite regional variations in construction and roof type the eastern coastal, northeastern and northwestern houses are identical in interior plan and volume three to five ba\ s wide with a central courtvard Houses are one or two store\s in height and large houses are made up of combinations of the basic three-ba\ unit
Fu]ian is quite mountainous and punctuated b\ manv rivers Only 10 per cent of the province, located along the coast is arable land, with 80 per cent mountainous and the balance water Fhe terrain has made communication between settlements difficult limiting the exchange of information and building practices Building tiaditions have developed locally, rather than extending throughout the province Where there is communication between communities it is cross-bordei or across water beuveen northeastern I ujian and Jiangxi between northwestern I ujian and Zhejiang and between coastal Fujian and laiwan, less than 200 km (125 mi) away across the Taiwan Strait
1 he lesidents of eastern I u|ian are piimarily descendants of Qingdvnasty migrants fiom central China, bringing with them China's prevailing courtyard tradition with its principles of central axis, svmmetrv and formal hierarchy of graduated rooms or halls Hakka people migrated to the region later, settling in the western mountainous region, and bringing with them the traditions of defensive clan dwelling
Houses built along the arable coastal plain are of timber-frame construction, with facades of red brick, or a combination of granite and red brick These are heavy materials able to withstand the high winds and heavy rains of season il monsoons and frequent coastal typhoons Stone is not dressed, but squared off and of irregular but roughK rectangular form Brick IS used in two forms a thin brick biscuit, which is dn -laid between stone courses and moulded brick often over-fired, with burned faces exposed to create a decorative checkerboard pattern During the late Qing dynasty influences from tiading partners in Southeast Asia inspired a new brick firing method in which brick is staggered in kilns, and the final piocedure of sprinkling used to create traditional Chinese green or grey brick IS omitted, creating vaiiegated shades of red instead Greyish granite is used as a base or sill course, and appears in carved column bases and occasionallv in relief on stone lintels
above entrance doors. Window and door surrounds feature
carved decoration, influenced bv the Chuanzhou tradition of
Guangdong province to the south Black tile roofs feature
turned-up eaves in a swallow-tail profile Roofs are flush with
gable-end walls, with no overhang, to prevent uplift in the high
winds of the typhoon season In material and decoration, the
houses of coastal Fupan icsemblc those of nearby laiwan, 1
principal trading partner With access both to arable land and
the sea for trade, coastal Fu|ian prospered, and this is reflected
in the resources lavished on dramaticallv contrasting materials.
decorative carved granite, elaborate patterned brickwork, and
extravagant, soaring tile roofs
The houses of northeastern Fu|ian are of timber-framed construction, infilled with rammed earth, mud or stone Gable
roofs with deep, overlungiiig eaves,

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