2011. február 28., hétfő

Maja ház / Traditional Mayan House

A maja kultúra hagyományos lakóháza Guatemalában - agyaggal tapasztott sövényfal, nádfedél. A ház 7 x 2-3 méter, a belső tér kb. 14 m2 ovális alapterületű. Egy bejárattal, nyílások nélkül.

Keserű Balázstól:
asszonyok munkában

Őry Balázs, Keserű Balázs

3 V 8 J Maya (Guatemala, Yucatan)
Ihe vernacular Mayan house of the Yucatan peninsula constitutes the oldest housing protot\'pe in the American continent, its histon goes back more than twenn' centuries and over that time has not essentially changed
The Mayan settlement system in classical times had two basic characteristics it was a complex rural-urban svstem, and a dual sedentarv-nomadic svstem
The rural-urban system saw the development of an important urban centre, which was a ceremonial centre and had different facilities but was not a housing centre, the houses were built in the rural areas peripheral to the cities This complex model has partially survived until the present
The nomadic-sedentary model consisted of a static city as a centre and nomadic houses around it this model had a logic in that through time the ceremonial centres accumulated a big investment, so it was not possible, nor was there any need, to move them while the houses depended on the agricultural plots around them Ihe soil of Yucatan is ven poor as it is a massive calcarean rock with less than 8 cm (3 in) of organic soil I his soil allowed the Mayan people to have three or four good harvests, but after that the soil was not useful for decades They had to move in search of new soils while keeping their link with their city and group, respect of this system has been essential since then to keep the ecological equilibrium
Around the house was the family land, and an integral production system generally delimited with a fence the plot with its agricultural fields proportionately allocated to edible products {corn, vegetables, fruit, honevand turkevs) to fabrics (henequcn and cotton), and to house building (wood for the columns, branches for the walls and palm leaves for the roof), so the house was autonomous in terms of basic inputs and fulfilment of only the more sophisticated needs as sought in the city
In the early period the family worked during two-thirds of the year and the other third was dedicated to different activities in the city, such as plastic arts, music, dance, astronomy and construction I his principle explains why the houses were so austere in contrast to the richness and monumentality of the city, and was broken some centuries before the arrival of the Spanish conquerors Since then the Mayas have altered the ecological and cultural equilibrium of their region The Mayan urban system fell into decadency and gradually disappeared, unlike the rural system which is alive as a production and consumption system around the Mavan rural house With successive conquests the Mayans lost their religion and their government but they have always kept their way of life symbolized by their house
Ihe ephemeral character of the Mayan houses of antiquity has not allowed them to survive intact but we know what they were like through the great descriptions of the codices, their description in the reliefs in such important archaeological centres as Uxmal and Labna or in the murals, and we can establish that they have not changed for centuries
In this way the contemporary old Mayan house constitutes an educational example of adaptability to the natural environment to change in a dynamic way.

Maya (Campeche)
Campeche is the Mexican state that encompasses the western half of the Yucatan peninsula I he topography of the state ranges from flat coastal and inland plains to the upraised Puuc hills region that forms the border with the state of Yucatan Palms and grasses form the vegetation of the coastal area in the west and continue eastward as savanna These savannas grade into areas of tropical jungle along the eastern edge of the state and remain as some of Mexico's last stands of mature indigenous vegetation Ihe southern part of the state receives substantial precipitation, particularly during the months from lune to October I he north is drier and of scrubby tropical forest
Setdement occurs throughout Campeche and is uniformly hierarchical Settlements range in size and distribution from the single large city, Campeche, to towns and dispersely located villages of several hundred people Only the eastern portion of the state lacks secondarv centres and is entirely composed of small villages Settlement in the northern Puuc region is aggregated and villages are found at the locations of haciendas from the Spanish period which have wells reaching the water table at a depth of approximately 80 m (260 ft) Surface water is completely lacking m the north, and prior to the construction of hacienda wells the population existed by collecting rainwater, a practice that continues to this day In the south, surface water is
Yucatan and Central America 3 v 8
Dore Christopher, 1996 wauchope, Robert, 1938
Typical Mayan residential structure in the Puuc region of Campeche
more abundant and the water-table is shallower. In this area it is more common to find people living away from villages, a condition that is quite rare in the north.
Structure type also differs across the state. Both rectilinear and apsidal (oval) plans occur in the north while the plan shape in the south is almost exclusively rectilinear. Structures in the north are stone, cinder block or wattíe and daub. In the south, plank (vertical and horizontal) and cinder block structures are preferred. While the differences in plan are not understood, plank structures in the south can be correlated with the availability of larger trees in this area. Northern Campeche lacks trees large enough to mill planks. It is not known, however, if these structures offer any advantages over the pole structures farther north. Grass roofs, common in the south, are relatively rare in the north where palm is preferred. Grass has been mentioned as having a longer use-life than palm (Wauchope) and appears to be the preferred roofing material. The lower nu.mber of grass roofs in the north may be due to the differential distribution of grass itself, although the relationship appears to be more complex than this (Dore).
In general, villages in Campeche are divided into house lots (solares) bounded by a dry laid stone wall about i m (3 ft) high. Solares typically contain from one to five structures that function as residences, kitchens and storehouses. Structures are usually apsidal or rectilinear and are constructed of pole or limestone. Roofs of most structures are hipped or gabled but shed roofs occasionally occur. The roof is typically supported by four vertical posts with crosspoles and is structurally independent from the walls. Walls, usually constructed from poles set vertically adjacent and lashed together or woven through horizontal crosspieces, are often set upon a foundation of one or two courses of dry laid stone. Structures serving as residences and storehouses are typically daubed on the interior but kitchens are usually not. When limestone is used for wall material, it is also structurally independent from the roof and frame.
In a typical village in the Puuc region (Dore), houses have an average area of 19 sq m (205 sq ft), kitchens 10 sq m (no sq ft) and storehouses 14 sq m (150 sq ft). Walls average just over
1.5 m (5 ft) with the height of the entire structure being just over 3 m (10 ft). Roof pitches are around 38°. Most structures have two entrances opposite each other on the structure's long sides.
While occurring more in towns than in villages, there is also a vernacular tradition utilizing cinder blocks. Buildings in this tradition range from small one-room to large multi-room structures. Cinder block structures are exclusively rectilinear in plan. These structures may function as residences or may be used commercially. Roofs of these structures are flat and are constructed of cinder blocks supported by cement beams.
Towns throughout Campeche tend to have more structures with a rectilinear plan than do villages. They consist of a mix of cinder block and organic structures. Cities generally lack organic structures. They are composed almost entirely of cinder block architecture that is usually constructed by specialists rather than by users.


Nincsenek megjegyzések:

Megjegyzés küldése

Megjegyzés: Megjegyzéseket csak a blog tagjai írhatnak a blogba.