2011. február 26., szombat

Dorze kunyhó / Dorze Hut

A Dorze törzs Etiópia belsejében, az Omo körzetben él. Hagyományos házuk az "elefánt alakú szalmakunyhó". Egyes adatok szerint akár 12 méter magas is lehet. A szokatlan magasság magyarázata: ha az éhes termeszek elrágják az alját, levágnak belőle, és pár erős férfi átköltözteti a házat egy újabb, akkor még termeszmentes helyre. Míg a ház nem lesz túl alacsony... Szerkezete a képek alapján fából és egyéb növényi anyagokból készül, átmérője 5 méter, alapterülete 20 négyzetméter körül lehet.


vannak a világban elképesztő dolgok

3.VII.3.f Dorze (Ethiopia, s)
The Dorze tribe are found in the Gemu-Gwefa region on the highlands of southern Ethiopia. They are industrious people renowned for their skill in weaving. They are weavers not only of houses but also of cloth; they use the same word for both activities. House weaving is a special skill, and often passes from father to son.
Construction of a house begins by finding a builder and obtaining bamboo and thatch. A small house can be finished in five days while the time needed for a large house is 22 days. The height of a house sometimes exceeds 8 m (26 ft) and is usually not less than 6 m (20 ft). There is a good reason for making it as high as it is, for in time the vertical split bamboo will rot away. The house is then cut from its rotten base before a strong wind can blow it over, lifted up and replanted in the earth. This is done as often as necessary until the house becomes too low for normal human activities. As a rule the height of the house is reduced by about 20 cm (8 in) every four years.
The circle on which the house is built is drawn by making a compass of a tall pole, a piece of string and a sharpened bamboo stick which draws a line on the packed soil of the house platform. The average diameter of a house is about 7-8 cm (23-26 ft). On the circle split bamboo pieces are driven into the ground approximately 10 cm (4 in) apart.
A series of horizontal rings are interlocked between the vertical pieces, from the bottom to the top. The diameter of the horizontal rings ofbamboo gradually reduces until at the top of the house the ring is almost closed. When the house reaches a certain height, the builder must construct a scaffolding from which to condnuc the work. A branch is hung near the top of the house in the belief that it protects the house from the evil eye.
After the main body of the structure is woven, a projecting nose-like canopy is added. On a small house, the canopy will simply form a cap over the door, curving a third of the way down its heightand keeping out the summer rains. On a large house,
the canopy forms an anteroom which can easily accommodate
eight people. The largest houses are closed with a wooden door
which locks from inside or outside, the alternative, used in most smaller houses and to close openings in fences, is a woven bamboo door, which slides into place behind two poles, and IS barred from inside
After the weaving is completed thatching begins Sometimes straw and bamboo shoot (qatta) are combined in patches for thatching When qatta is used two pieces are placed one on top of the other, and slide into place under the retaining bamboo strips Qatta is very closely spaced, one layer overlapping all but
2 5 cm (i in) of the preceding one, and o i sq m (i sq ft) is covered by approximately 24 of these bamboo shoots I he very top of the house where the weaving is drawn together into a dome is finished by pegging some vertical strips of bamboo string into an attractive topknot
rhe interior of a Dorze house has two distinct areas separated by a bamboo partition approximately 2 m (6 5 ft) high The back portion serves as a kind of store, whereas all other activities are carried out in the front area A small fireplace consisting essentially of three stones is located almost in the middle of the room Halfway along the wall there are tiny openings that serve mainly for letting smoke out Ihe house is completely watertight and has no openings except for the door The floor IS of clay, smoothed and hardened with a mixture ofwater and manure
Dorze houses can be transported when the land they occupy IS required for some common use Before a house is dug up, the front canopy, if there is one, is removed and strips of split bamboo are sewn in rings around the lower portion of the wall to help the house keep its shape, during transportation Men carry the house to the new site When the house reaches the platform prepared for it, broken portions of the house are soon mended and the canopy replaced, often the house is newly thatched
When a compound disappears, having rotted away from old age, an inconspicuous memorial of sticks will be leaned together conically to commemorate it.


Jancsó Miklós

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