2011. február 27., vasárnap

Maori ház / Maori House

A maorik hagyományos lakóháza. Valószínűleg már egy sincs belőlük, ami hitelesnek tekinthető lenne. A maorik polinéz származásúak, legnagyobb részük Új-Zélandon él.

maori kultúra
összefoglaló a maorikról
maori művészet
maori falu
mielőtt leigáztuk őket
egy példa
másik példa
harmadik példa
közösségi ház 1
közösségi ház 2
maori harci kenu

1 Vll 5 g Symbolism: ancestral (Maori)
Carving traditions and decorative styles among the Maori vary from area to area and from tribe to tribe within them. Serpentine designs, based on an 'S' double-curve were used in the west and northwest of the North Island of New Zealand. This style, largely made with stone tools, declined with the arrival in the region of the Europeans. Square designs are associated with the east coast, the term referring to the overall shape and the frontal aspect of the figures carved; flowing and interlacing lines within these shapes are characteristic of all styles. Eastern styles were facilitated by the use of European steel tools, and spread with the carving of meeting houses {whare hui), principally with adze and chisel.
Whare hui of the 'modern' period date from 1842, with the construction ofTe Hau ki Turanga (Spirit ofTuranga) under the direction of the chief of the Ngata Kaipoho tribe, Raharuhi Rukopo, who also did much of the carving with his 18 assistants. This meeting house was later confiscated as reparations and is now in the Wellington Museum, but Te Mana O Turanga at Whakato marae was built to replace it. Opened in 1883 it was
renovated in the 19405 and still survives Many meeting houses were built in the latter pait of the igth century and after igoo, incorporating some of the svmbohc and functional features oř a chief's house, place of worship, genealogical record and guesthouse Possibly the oldest and among the most splendid outside a museum, is le lokanganui-A-Noho, opened in 1874 Following relocation and partial rebuilding, it is situated in le Kum
The symbolism of the iDhare liui is expressed both in its structure and in its decoration Ihe facade customarily featured bargeboards (maijhi) carved in relief signifj'ing arms which terminated in rararapa or fingers which were also carved and sometimes pierced, though the carvings on them might depict mythical figures on the flanking boards At the peak of the maihi gable a mask (koruru) was often displayed to whom foi-mal speech was directed, it was regarded as the head of the common ancestor whose body was the meeting house Sometimes this was surmounted by a carved ancestral figure, the tekotepo The part of the ridge-pole that was visible inside the porch sometimes had carvings of the piimal parents, the sk> father Ranginui and the earth mothei, Papatuanuku The door way symbolized the passage from the material world to the spiritual world and was often spanned by a richly carved lintel Ihis might depict a squatting, pregnant female or manaia, or supporting figures with raised arms, symbolizing life forces Read as a whole, the carvings linked the specific genealogical history of the tribal group with creation myths and the lelation-ship of spirits including those of the ancestors to the human world and to principles oř existence
Within the meeting house the suppoi ting poles oř the backbone or ridge were also deeply carved, the front post (poutahu) symbolizing the Life-giver lane while Death (Hinenuitepo) was symbolized by the back pole (poutuarontjo) Between them the ridge-pole was painted with the plump tendrils of a gourd plant which were also entwined on the rafteis Ihese link the ancestors carved on the supporting wall slabs with the backbone' the repetition of the patterns in red (prosperity) and black (adversity) on white counting the generations, their respective pioportions reflecting the historical fortunes oř the tribe
Lining the porch or veranda of the meeting house and within weie latticework panels (tukutuku) woven by the women in geometric patterns Made from bracken and fern stems, flax and a climbing plant (kiekie) the patterns were also svmbohc Poutama represented steps, svmbolizing aspiration, patiki, a fish, sym-
bolized rood resources, and purapiiro wheiu was a motif that symbolized the heavens Tukutuku panels have enjoyed a revival in the late 20th century
Among notable aihare fiui in use, and in some cases built in the 20th century are Uenuku meeting house. Maketu' le Puea Herangin at Waikato, Hontunui at Parawai, (donated to Auckland Museum in 1929), Mahinarangi at Ngaruawahia, completed in the same year, Raukawa at Otaki, renovated and re-opened in 1936, and Takitimu at Wairoa, still functioning decades later.
1 VII 5 g-i Symbolism: cosmic
Cosmic symbols often adorn the surface decoration oř domestic architecture A cosmologv is a set of fundamental concepts concerning the organization of reality and the place of human society within it Through cosmic symbolism, vernacu lar architecture helps ordei human experience in accordance with the basic ontological premises of a culture
Cosmic svmbohsm varies cross-culturally Heuristicallj, however, we can isolate a symbol itself fiom its message and context It IS also useful to consider four characteristics of svm-bols single versus multiple meaning static or contextual meaning, iconic versus aniconic significance, and overt or embedded messages I hese points are illustrated below
Batammaliba (Africa) houses symbolize the entire cosmos (Blier) Painted fork icons reference Oyinkakwata the sky god, and the fruit tree branches that support the sky Clay horns attached above the front door signify Kuiye, the solar god, as well as testicles and thus fertility and reproduction During funerals the horns are dropped from the house, which is then draped with mortuary cloths that evoke initiation ceremonies and the eternal cvcle of death, life, and regeneration In this manner, the horns are multiple and contextual cosmic svm-bols Below them, moulded circular bosses surrounded by white feathers svmbohzeřertihtv and especiallv Butan the goddess of the earth who hatched humanity
As a body, new Batammaliba houses have a smooth skin of plaster and the cicatrization marks of female initiation I louses are also painted with colouis and patterns associated with lesser deities, cosmic principles (e g temporality and kinship), and the division of the universe into the earth, underworld and sky Batammaliba house decoration thereby signifies cosmic creation and regeneration, and integrates persons, bodies and the universe into an ordered whole
North American Plains Indian tipis were also often painted with representations of mythological deities, events, and the different realms of the cosmos (Nabokov and Easton) Likewise, Bawomatalua (Indonesia) houses of village rulers are adorned with sculptures that represent a cosmos delineated into a hierarchy of levels respectively populated by deities, aerial creatures and humans, and earth denizens (Feldman)
Many architectural traditions, however, express cosmic principles through anicomc symbols The Maori (New Zealand) ornamented vernacular structures with linear patterns that conform to dual symmetries (Hanson) Ihese motifs do not signify particular deities and beliefs but rather reflect an embedded grammar that partitions the cosmos into binary


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