2011. február 22., kedd

Beduin sátor/ Bedouin Tent

Berber sátorról: 563. oldal


Beduin pásztorok ősi, sivatagi lakhelye. Sok hasonlóságot mutat a berber sátrakkal. Építésüknél a legfontosabb szempont a mobilitás, a túllegeltetés elkerülése és a más törzsekkel való kereskedelmi érintkezés megvalósítása miatt. Teve-terelő nomádok, mint például a közép-szudáni Kabābīsh törzs épít ilyen hagyományos sátrakat. Téglalap alaprajzú, teveszőr szövéssel készült csíkokkal borított építmény, a sarkokon levert póznákhoz hevederekkel rögzítve. A sátor közepén elhelyezett íves tartó biztosítja az egész szerkezet stabilitását. A sátrak mérete változó, az egy-két személyes pár négyzetméterestől, a képen is látható óriásig.

Paul Oliver: Dwellings 20, 33, 133, 134, 136, 137. old.
A beduinokról
Sátrakról általában

Radványi Péter

2 iv.4.b Bidül Bedouin (Jordan, s)
The Bidül Bedouin are a tribe of 2000 people in the vicinity of Petra, Jordan. Traditional Bidül subsistence is based upon goat herding, supplemented by the seasonal cultivation of small plots of barley, wheat and tobacco. Donkeys and a few camels are kept as beasts of burden. Mobility was traditionally variable from year to year, reflected in the mix of farming versus herding, and in the variety of architecture.
Bidül residential architecture takes three forms: black, goat hair tents (bayt), use of ancient, Nabataean tombs as caves (dar), and masonry structures in canyon alcoves (tur). The first two types are the most ancient, but archaeology has demonstrated use of alcoves since the 17th century.
One of the oldest forms of vernacular architecture, black tents are constructed of goat hair strips handwoven on ground looms; measuring 60-80 cm (23-31 in) wide, the strips extend along the length of the tent, the ends being sewn together to make longer strips if necessary. Goat hair is preferred because sheep wool stretches, and camel hair is too short and weak. The strips are sewn together along their length to make tents of various sizes, but the standard is about 15 m (50 ft) long by 3.5 m (11.5 ft) wide by 2 m (6.5 ft) high. Tents can be placed end to end to make larger structures. 12-15 poles ('am'ud) 2-3 m (6.5-10 ft) long support the ridgeless roof at points reinforced with tent fabric or wooden support plates. Webbing reinforcement bands are of two types: bands about 15 cm (6 in) wide extend transversely at points where sets of poles occur; and short strips, 15-25 cm (6-10 in) long and about 15 cm (6 in) wide, are placed only at points requiring reinforcement. The structure is tethered with manila ropes threaded through wooden fittings and tied to as many or more stakes as there are poles. The back and sides (ru'atj) are attached by wooden pins or large nails. On hot days, the flaps are raised permitting full ventilation. In the winter a front flap is added to fully enclose the tent. Large tents take 30 minutes to erect with five people and can be erected, or changed in aspect, by a single person. The tents are often, but not always, internally divided transversely, using various fabrics. Dividers separate activities, gender, and in the winter, animals and humans. Most tents have inside and outside fire hearths, and activities including food preparation, eating, and men's sleeping often occur outside and in front of the tent. As the tents age, individual strips are replaced, typically one per year for a tent in continuous use. 1 larmonizing with the environment, black tents provide shade, privacy, ventilation, protection from thunderstorms and sand storms, and moderate protection from cold temperatures. Their continued use for thousands of years reflects their ability to meet the needs of various circumstances.
Division of space is by transverse partitions as the tents are too narrow to divide lengthwise. Many have divisions with women and children separated to one or other end of the tent. However, there are also many tents with no physical divisions at
all, despite the presence of women, pre-adolescent females, young adult females and men of various ages. In these cases, division of space is by activity area including sleeping areas (interior for women, exterior for men); a hearth for eating and communal activities within the tent (almost always in the centre section); another hearth at the edge of the tent or outside used for the same activities or as a supplemental hearth; a kitchen preparation/storage and yoghurt (laban) processing area (always at one end). Animals are only kept in tents during the winter (Petra often receives snow) and they are allotted a centre section, or one entire end of the tent in the case of small tents. These patterns can also be seen in the 'archaeological' organization of abandoned tents.
Petra is the site of an ancient Nabataean city known for spectacular monuments carved into sheer sandstone cliffs. The Nabataeans buried their dead in rectilinear caves quarried into the stone. During the Byzantine period, the cit\' met its demise, and most of the tombs were looted, leaving empty shells subse-quentíy used by nomadic peoples. Habitation in caves is common in the Near East, and the use of tombs is but an extension of this practice adapted to the availability of the latter, and to the economic effects of a growing tourist industry tethering the Bidül to this area. Typically, a family simply moves their belongings into a tomb and the spatial patterning of activities remains similar to tent encampments. Some tombs have been modified by the construction of masonry fronts of sandstone, cement or cinder block. Sizes are variable, but rooms average 13 sqm (140 sqft).
Habitations in alcoves in the rugged sandstone terrain were used within the past few decades, but last observed in 1986. These represent short- and long-term occupations, typically associated with herding. Remains include hearths, masonry retainingwalls to level the floor, and layers of animal dung, and some exhibit structural investments in dry-laid sandstone masonry rooms, storage, and animal pens. Typically located in the rugged terrain surrounding Petra proper, the alcove habitations are not widely known, and are often situated on steep canyon slopes on circuitous routes of access.
In 1985, the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan constructed a modern setdement for the Bidül, hastening the departure from traditional architecture. Alcove and tomb residences fell into disuse between 1986 and 1990. Aspects of spatial organization and the activity structure within the cinder block houses of the settlement mimic those of tent life, but only a few tent encampments remain in remote areas to assist with herdingand for intermittent use by elderly individuals who resist full settlement. While tent weaving is still done, it is disappearing rapidly. Production has shifted towards commercial rug weaving with designs.


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