2012. július 26., csütörtök

Türkmén jurta

1480. oldal

831. más jurták

2 IV 2 s Turkomen (Taurus Turkey, sc)
The Turkomen are the great part of the nomadic Turks who came from Central Asia to Anatolia between the nth and 14th centuries and who were not sedentarized In the Taurus mountains of the Mediterranean coast, some of the Turkomen have survived until today in spite of an accelerated shift to agriculture and other professions since the 19505
The lurks brought their Central Asian yurt-type tents to the central regions of Anatolia where they first settled because of the geographical resemblance to their native countries The

yurt is suitable for the harshness of central Anatoha's chmate, but Its permeable felt cover makes the dwelling inappropriate for Its region's higher rainfall Ihis fact must have played an important role in the rapid process of sedentarization in central Anatolia On the other hand, the efficient and sophisticated form of the yurt has svmbolic values which suggest remembrance of the past For that reason, in central Anatolia though the nomadic life disappeared centuries before the use of the yurt as a summer shelter or for ceremonial purposes (eg as a wedding tent) has continued until today in, for instance, Emirdag near Afyon, and Bor and Ulukisla near Nigde)
As the climate is mild in the subtropical area between the Taurus mountains and the Mediterranean Sea, the protective advantage of the vurt against the cold is not required and the nomads preferred the black tent which can be produced without any craftsmanship transported easilv and constructed quickh 1 his tent is am and its cover is waterproof since it is woven of goat hair which is spun without having been washed and is then swelled by rain
The term 'yurt' is Turkish and means 'homeland' in Anatolia, the term topakeu, domed house is used instead The topakeu has the same characteristics as the yurt of the lurkoinen Uzbeks and latars of Central Asia Ihe terms used for different elements of the topakeu are common with those of the Turkomen of Horasan
Ihe yurt is a portable framework formed by half-split willow rods which supporta felt tent cover Ihis framework consists of
a cylindrical trellis wall and a dome-shaped roof The trellis wall, constructed with rods criss-crossed over one another with hinged joints of pegs, is approximately i i m {3 5 ft) high and is made of four sections or more, which can be folded up Ihis system makes the walls portable and the diagonal direction of the slats increases the strength and stabihtv of the walls For the construction of the yurt, the sections of the trellis wall are placed side by side in order to make a cylindrical form, and bound together Between two of these sections is set a doorframe 1 hen a 3 m (10 ft) high pole is erected in the centre of the cylindrical wall which supports a roof wheel (dügnük) roughly I. 3 m (4 .3 ft) in diameter The rim of the roof wheel is pierced with two rows of slots the upper row for the rods which strengthen the circular form of the rim, while the curved roof poles (çig) which tie the wheel to each set of crossed rods at the top of the wall, end at the lower row of slots
The framework is covered with white felt made of sheep's wool For the cylindrical part a long rectangular felt is used, while the roof has two crescent-shaped felts and the top has a circular piece During the extremely cold winters the layers of felt can be augmented The felt cover of the vurt is wrapped around by woven tension bands which strengthen the whole construction It is not necessary to bind the vurt to the ground with rope and stakes, which is an advantage in geographical
areas with frozen ground. The central pole can be removed after the construction process, and replaced by a fireplace. The roof wheel above can be left uncovered to function as a smoke-and light-hole.
The aerodynamic form of this tent type increases its resistance against the wind. IVlaximum volume is obtained by minimum surface. The semispherical interior gives an impression of more space, in comparison with any other geometrical forms of the same base area. The concave inner surface and the white light of the translucent felt mediates the severity of the external conditions. The black tent that the Turkomen met in their migration to the west is the tent t\'pe which is widespread among the recent nomads (the last nomadic groups of Anatolia) of the Taurus mountains. What is interesting is that the black tent of the Turkomen is closer in form to the Arabic tent than to the Persian one which they had encountered on their way to Anatolia.
The felt used in the yurt is not resistant to tension. However, the flexible web of the black tent does not necessitate an extra framework. Its whole structure consists of only the web. The five to seven or more cloth breadths approximately 60-80 cm (2-2.5 ft) wide and 4.5-g m (15-30 ft) long, woven of black goat wool sewn together along their longitudinal length, make a rectangular cover. This cover cannot be pulled on its long sides, as the seams can be ripped. That is why, along the two short sides and between and parallel to them, tension bands 15 cm (6 in) wide are sewn on the cover. These bands are placed perpendicular to the breadth of the cloth, and are pulled with ropes at their ends to get the cover tight.
In addition, the tent is pulled with a stretch rope at the mid-
dle of each side. For the elevation of the cover, poles 2-2.3 "^ (6.5-7.5 ft) high placed in the middle of the tension bands are used. The central pole is higher than the others. The verticality of these poles is obtained by the tension of the bands. After the cover has been tensioned, the flanks of the tent are surrounded by a more loosely woven web (sitil). This web is attached to the cover by means of wooden pins and can be removed for ventilation; during cold days, a bare stone wall is built around it.
On the floor of the tent, woven mats (kilim) and felts are laid. And as in the yurt, sacks of grain and items of daily life are lined up adjacent to the walls of the tent. The woven sacks, which are richly ornamented and coloured, create an attractive interior ambience.

Türkmén jurta_szov1480_82.txt

ing wooden framework of latticework panels (trellis), roof struts, a roof wheel or roof ring, and a door-frame with or without a door leaf; a felt covering; and woven bands and ropes made of wool and cotton which hold the wooden structure together and fasten the felt covering. It is closely associated with sheep breeding as wool is necessary for the felt covering.
Rock engravings dating back to the second and the first centuries BC and discovered in the middle Yenisey basin (Siberia) show herdsmen, their sheep and cattle, their large log huts and their yurt-like dwellings. As a result of the Turko-Mongol migrations of the ijthcentur)', the area where the yurt was used extended westwards and it is now found in a 1500 km (930 mi) wide, 7000 km (4300 mi) long territory stretching from Mongolia and southern Siberia to Turkey; it has very few variations in form and detail within this area.
Yurts are roughly divided into two main cultural types: the Mongol-type yurt with its straight struts, and the Turkish-type yurt with its struts bent on the lower half which give the top of the yurt a rounded or flattened appearance.
The yurt IS used by all nomadic Mongol and Turkish peoples. In northern Afghanistan some Tajik, Hazara and Aymaq groups culturally influenced by their I'urkish neighbours have adopted it. Today it is still the permanent or temporar)' dwelling ofhundreds of thousands of nomadic herders and of numerous semi-nomadic agro-pastoralists. In Soviet Central Asia, the yurt, once condemned as retrograde, was rehabilitated at the time of Khrushchev for its practical advantages: mobilit)' and climatic adaptability, for the brigades of herders.
The curved trellis is composed of four or eight separate elements (when eight elements, they are superimposed in pairs) set in a circle; the trellis and the door frame with its vertical elements form the walls of the dwelling, while the trellis and the
uprights are the vertical carrier elements. Broad woollen girths encircle the trellis and prevent it widening under the weight of the roof
Roof struts (40-100 depending on the size of the yurt) join the top of the trellis and the lintel to the rim of the roof wheel. The length of the struts ranges between 2 m (6.5 ft) and 2.8 m (g.2 ft). The lower tips of the struts are tied up on the top of the trellis; the upper ones, sharpened to a taper, slot into the holes oftheroofwheel. In order to link and maintain the struts firmly at equal spacing, and to keep the dome stable, the struts are fastened by each one being tied around with a woollen home-woven ornamental band; this counterbalances the force of vertical pressure caused by the dome and transmitted by the struts.

The roof wheel has two or more bundles of curved spokes that span the wheel.
The yurt is covered with large pieces of felt trimmed with ropes and girths: two trapezoid felts over the struts, four rectangular felts around the trellis and a top felt that can be folded back to open a smoke-hole and skylight, and closed to prevent snow and wind from entering.
The wooden carcass is made by village carpenters. The wood-willow or poplar - cut green - can be bent easily; the carpenter cuts the laths of the collapsible criss-cross wall units; a hole is made through each wooden piece where it crosses another, and rawhide, working as a hinge, is passed through the holes and knotted on both sides. The trellis can be folded accordion-like.
The other elements of the yurt-felt, girths, ropes, inner and outer decoration - are made within the family of the herders, generally by the women. The felt is made with sheep's wool sheared in the late summer.
Erecting and dismantling of the yurt is women's work; the men will help to lift up the heaviest parts - the wheel and the roof felts. Pitching takes about two hours. The wooden part can last 50 years, the felt between 7 and 12 years.
Unlike the tent, the yurt supports itself With the same inhabitable volume, it is however, much heavier; the wooden framework weighs up to 150 kg (330 lb) and the felt covering at least 100 kg (220 lb); when moved from place to place, it is transported on two camels or three horses.
Its squat form and its thick covering suit harsh and windy climates as those of the Pamirs and of Mongolia. In extreme cold, the felt covers the trellis down to the soil; in summer, side felts are raised for aeration. Otherwise, in milder climates or where the yurts are used only during spring and summertime, the felt covers only half the trellis and the 'walls' are covered with cane screens.
Through external distinctive marks, such as for instance white cotton girths on the dome (Uzbek), appliqué or embroidered motifs (Kirghiz), a carved door (Turkmen), it is possible to identify the ethnic group, the region, and even the family and its wealth. The interior of the yurt is divided according to strict rules by all peoples using it.
The term 'yurt' (Turkish) adopted by European languages for this dwelling is in fact employed in this sense by none of its users; rather the term refers to the soil, to the place where the 'yurt' is built, to the camp, to the territory occupied by the same clan, and by extension, to the home country. For the iVlongolians, the proper term is^qcr; in Turkish, it is called uy, oy, uy, ortopakcu; in Persian, kheríjáh or simply kliätie/klidna, house, and in Russian literature, kibitka.

Türkmén jurta_szov mas832_33.txt

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