2012. július 23., hétfő

Badjao (Baujau) tutajház, Fülöp-szigetek

1193. oldal


2 II 7 a Badjao (Sulu Sea)
The Sulu archipelago is a group of islands between the southern tip of Mindanao in the Philippines, and the east coast of Borneo. These islands are inhabited by two large ethnic groups, the politically dominant Tausug and the .Samal, who themselves are split into the 'Land Samal' and the nomadic 'Sea
Samal' or 'Badjaos'. Both groups of the Samal arc Muslim, although the Badjaos still practise their old nativistic 'pagan' religion as well (Nimmo).
Most Badjaos are setded around the Tawitawi islands. All the settlements have similar features: protected from the open sea by reefs in close proximity to a sandy beach, where children play and the boats can be repaired. While the Badjaos support their land-living folksmen with fish and seafood they in turn receive vegetables, rice and fruits and may even use the fields for cultivating their own crops.
The migration of the Badjaos is cyclical, depending on wind and fishing grounds. At full moon for example the fishers gather at Bilatan, a small island next to Tawitawi, to await the fish shoals, which swim to the shallow waters. Other reasons for migrations are the numerous festivities. As most of the Badjaos are somehow related to each other, on certain occasions, like weddings or funerals, a large number will assemble to celebrate the festivity and to exchange news. Owing to constant travel and their small numbers they never attracted the attention of political powers and were allowed to maintain this way of life nearly undisturbed throughout the centuries.
Because of the limited space on board of their boats the Badjaos live in nuclear families, mosriy separated from others. A young married couple has one year to build their own boat; during this time the couple usually lives either on his or her parents' boat. The boat lasts for 10-15 years and might be the family's only home. A single beam forms the bottom and boards of wood form the body. To the rear there is a fireplace and a depositor)' for the household effects. The covered part is split into a living area and a sleeping place, and the front is used for fishing and storing materials for the boat. Between the front outriggers there is a tiny platform for harpooning the bigger fish; all others are caught by net. The boats are about 10-12 m (33-40 ft) in length and, depending on the wealth of the owner, are beautifully-carved front and back. In shallow waters they can be moved by stick, while for longer distances a small sail is used. When the children have left the family and someone remains alone on the boat he has either to marry again or attempt to join another boat. Adoption is also a widely used means ofkeeping a boat functioning.
Many of the Badjaos have a boat as well as a house, today. The house, always built on stilts above pardy flooded land, shows many features of the boat: no furniture except boxes or cages (which are always placed towards the sea), no iron nails so as not to hurt the spirits of the ancestors who roam through the boats and houses, and a httie box where the spirit of the house is supposed to live. Although there are only 80 entirely seafaring families left, water is still the important element of the Badjaos' life -as shown by the fact that during a storm most people leave their houses and take reftige in their boats.


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