2012. július 26., csütörtök

Palloza, Piornedo, Galicia, Spanyolország

1533. oldal.



2.IV.5J-I Galician: palloza
A dwelling of oval or circular layout and with a thatched roof, the palloza is preserved in the remotest parts of the eastern mountains of Galicia, in the northwest region of the Iberian peninsula.
The biggest concentration of pallozas is found in the villages of Vilarello, Xantes, Donis, Piornedo and Moreira, about 1200 m (4000 ft) above sea level, in the western band of the Sierra dos Ancares which runs from north to south between the provinces of Lugo and Leon. Outside this area the remaining pallozas are rare, surviving in an adapted or evolved fashion. They are found on the sunniest mountain slopes forming groups of dwellings along a stone road (corredoira) which follows the curve levels. This pattern of settlement, called rueiro, is the commonest in the region.
There is a wide range of ground plans from the almost circular to the almost rectangular with round corners. This diversity responds to climatological conditions such as the direction of the prevailing winds, constructional ones like the length of the structural elements, or functional ones such as the need for bigger space.
Generally the size varies between 12 m (39 ft) and 14 m (46 ft) in diameter. The major axis in the plan follows the direction of the slope allowing two levels inside the dwelling. While the highest is occupied by the family members, the lowest serves as shelter for cows and horses. Basically, the palloza is a huge single space under a big straw cover which shelters people, animals and the harvests against the long harsh winter. Its shape is similar to that of an inverted hull lying on a 2 m (6.5 ft)-high

laid over it On the barra rye straw, hay and potatoes are stored to help to last out the winter The barra also provides extra sleeping space Above the lareira and across the astraijo extend two horizontal beams igansenas] holding a t>pe of platform the camzo with a twofold function to protect the thatched roof from sparks and to serve as a place for drying chestnuts, an essential part of the diet
I he roof structure made of oak or chestnut timber, comprises two wooden poles (esteos or pes de armar) placed upon a large stone perforated in the middle I he> are forked at the top to hold the main beam (cume) which serves in turn to support the rafters {cantos) Above these the horizontal planks (iatas) hold the straw trusses (colmos) To help to support the weight there can be auxiliary beams (carreiras) which run horizontally and are supported by tixeiras, small esteos which are placed near the walls
Ihe last residents in this type of dwelling left the palloza do Perdyon in Piornedo in iggi Most of them are, however still used for sheltering the animals


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