2012. július 23., hétfő

Iban hosszúház, Borneó, Malajzia

1131. oldal


2 II 4 c Iban (Brunei, Kalimantan, w, Sarawak)
A major Borneo people, the Iban number over 400000 in Sarawak (East Malaysia), approximately 8000 in Biunei, and 7000 in West Kalimantan, Indonesia (as at the mid-igSos) Because of their demographic importance and the relative accessibility of their largely lowland or hilly residence in Sarawak, Iban culture has been described at length since the late 19th century It is understood that Iban migrated from the upper Kapuas valley in West Kalimantan, spreading out into Sarawak and further on to Brunei early in the 20th century Currently they are found along most river systems in Sarawak, with the notable exception of the Balui and Baram areas occupied by the Orang Ulu, as well as in urban districts Local groups are known by the name of the river where they setded, for example the Ulu Ai, Undup, Skrang, Lemanak, Sanbas, Julau and Baleh Ihese river-based groups, formerly corresponding to warfare and head-hunting units, show some minor differentiation in custom and ritual activities However, the Iban language is fairly homogeneous despite its regional accents and functions as a lingua franca m most of Sarawak In rural areas, the long-house IS the usual type of housing Well known as prodigal swidden agriculturists of hill rice, the Iban farmers also cultivate cash crops, such as rubber and pepper, with remarkable success During the latter part of the 20th century they have discarded the 'pioneer' oudook for a more settled lifestyle
In upriver areas, the setdement is formed by a single long-house (rumah), while in more accessible locations several of these may be clustered The longhouse is known by the founder's name or by the name of its headman {tuai rumah) or influential political leader, for example Rumah Penghulu Jugah The longhouse is usually located on the banks of a stream or smaller tributary of a larger river 1 he building is not disposed according to any particular orientation, however, longhouses may neither span a stream nor face each other across a river In the well-developed areas, especially the First and Second Divisions of Sarawak, the house is built near a road or path connecting It with the towns or downriver bazaars
The Iban longhouse is a rectangular structure 30-200 m (100-650 ft) long with a width of 12-18 m (40-60 ft) On average, the building is raised about 2-4 m (6 5-13 ft) from the ground The long pitched roof is closed by a large gable, usually

of palm thatch It rests on many hardwood posts (tiantj) of which rows of six or seven are disposed lateralK But in some cases a house will be built on a slope thus taking advantage of the declivitv on one side 1 he fieldhouse (dampa ) consists of a small longhouse oř three to five doors, with a simpler structure, lighter materials thin posts, and soon riuts (lancjkau) are also used as farmhouses
An average longhouse contains about 15 'doors' or apartments (bilek/bilik), but houses up to 50 bilek are reported In layout, four main parts can be distinguished the common gallery (rufli) which runs the length of the house, and which is subdivided in three parallel sections the family apartments the loft (sadau) extendingjustabove these, and the open outer platform (tanju ) On both ends notched logs or stairs give access to the gallery Usuallv the floors and inner walls are made of rather light materials bamboos, nibong palm planks (Oncosperma filamentosa] and tree bark In contrast, crossbeams supporting the outer platform are made from ironwood or other hardwoods, so as to withstand exposure from the wet climate of west Borneo Roofing may consist of ironwood shingles (atap papan) or nipa palms (Nipa Jruticans) thatch or even pandanus leaves in pioneer settlements The upper framework of crossbeams, top plates rafters, purlins and beams is generally made of softwood Formerly, among some Iban of the Kapuas basin, a taboo on the use of ironwood was enforced
Each bilek fiamil) owns a transversal section of the six parts of the house mentioned above and is responsible for its maintenance and cleaning The apartment constitutes the living-quarters par excellente where meals are taken and domestic activities performed 1 amily heirlooms such as bronze gongs, Chinese jars and brass objects are kept here, placed against the room's back wall or the lateral wall I he hearth formerly disposed near the apartment's door is now usualh found in an extension at the back The sleeping and working space is covered by mats made of various materials, including reeds, rattans and pandanus Nowadays, raised beds complete with mosquito net are in common use Access to the loft is by means of a notched ladder located either m the gallery in the section (tempuan) against the wall, or the apartment Paddy is stored there in huge bark bins alongside agricultural implements and rice baskets, also the household's sacred paddy seeds In the tempuan, which is the women's space of the gallery, heavy rice mortars are disposed Activities such as weaving and basket or mat making may be carried out either in the apartment or the gallery The headman's apartment occupies the central section of the house, neighbouring apartments are inhabited by his close relatives rurthermore, in the headman's section, a notched ladder can be found on the outer platform to the ground Otherwise, there seems to be litde difference in the floor space between apartments Tormerly, pigsties were disposed under the outer platform and gallery floors, as an easy way of waste disposal (LingRoth)

Iban hosszu_szov1131_32.txt

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