2012. július 26., csütörtök

Ingus lakótornyok, Guli környékén

1430. oldal




2 11110g lngush(Chechnya w Ingushetia Caucasus c)
The Ingush live in the foothills and lowland areas, and also in the deep valleys of the central Caucasus In the igth and 20th centuries their principal occupations were animal farming in the mountains and crop farming in the plains
Old Ingush villages were on steep mountain slopes and at the bottom of deep secluded ravines Often villages ofanything between 6o and go farms were largely composed of members of a single patrilineal clan Some families occupied several
villages in the same vicinity. Nearly all villages had their defensive towers, inhabited towers and in some cases their watch-towers The common type of dwelling was a two-storev stone house with the lower floor housing livestock and the upper floor used as a habitation and workshop By no means all had guest accommodation, but if they did it was a separate building a little apart from the house and it generally comprised a living-room and a lobby In the communal room, usually against the back wall, there was a hearth for heating and cooking, with a chain for the cooking pot suspended over it To the right of the hearth, along the side wall there was a long bench and at mealtimes low three legged round tables were set out in front of this bench The best tableware - pewter and glass - was kept on show in this room in a special niche
Prevalent among the Ingush were three-storey tower dwellings which housed the numeious members of their extended families The tower had a single entrance on the ground floor which was sealed with an oak door or a stone slab In the tower walls there were a few small slit windows which could be sealed with double-batten shutters The lower floor housed the livestock, while the upstairs floors were living-quarters Each family had its own quarters, shut off from the others bv blank walls and each had its own separate access I here were, however, trapdoors bv means of which members of the family could communicate with each other Ihis sort of tower house was a reliable defensive structure In the event of danger it made an impregnable fortress
Very often tower dwellings were built close to defensive towers and enclosed by a common high stone wall Castles like these are found not only among the Ingush but also in Ossetia, Chechnya, Dagestan and other mountainous regions of the Caucasus
When they settled in the plains in the iSthand igth centuries, the mountain dwellers adopted the Cossack-type house of their neighbours Originally most Ingushi adopted their own version

of the Cossack hut (mazánka), a small wattle and daub house comprising two rooms and a lobby with a thatched gable roof Subsequently, this grew into a longhouse built of unfired brick with a gable or hipped roof which was either thatched or tiled The walls were plastered inside and out with lime-mortar This type of house had three, four or five rooms, each with its own door giving on to a narrow covered veranda which ran the entire length of the house under a common roof This type of dwelling usually housed a large family with married sons each having a separate room and the head of the family with his wife and children living in the communal room which also served as the kitchen In the central section of the house, next to the communal room, there was a guest-room
For heating and cooking there was a fireplace with a chimney-stack, usually against the back wall of the communal room Other rooms were generally heated bv a Russian tin stove As well as the longhouse, in the plains of Ingushetia there were rectangular stone or timber houses with rooms interconnecting as they did in the town

Ingus lakótorony_szov1430_30.txt

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