2012. július 23., hétfő

Ifugao ház, Fülöp-szigetek

1202. oldal


2II7J Maranao (Mindanao, N)
The four encampments about Lake Lanao in the province of Lanao del Sur, Mindanao, are the traditional population centres of the Maranao people. These Islam-practising people are the most art-conscious of the ethnic Filipinos, noted for their ornamental work called okil and the most impressive of Philippine vernacular architecture. They have a tendency to carve or paint the foliated okil designs on the most common of domestic items - sieves, scoops, cake moulds, ploughs, harrows, paddles, net handles, mortars. The people subsist on intensive domestic agriculture and fishing, on metalcraft, especially brassware, and on intricate weaving for commerce. The men are inveterate traders.
Maranao houses fall into three types: \awig (small house); mala-a-uifllai (large house); and torocjan, the ornately decorated residence of the leading title-holder of the major descent line of a kin group, and his extended family.
Lawigs range in size from the field huts which are raised off the ground on stilts with lean-to roofing and an outdoor cooking area and which are used mainly for sleeping, to the common household structures in population centres which have an interior hearth and are usually occupied by single family units.

The lawig is not ordinarily embellished, except for an occasional, isolated, ornamental painted or carved wooden piece which might decorate a window sill or doorway. There is no consistency in the placements of these decorations.
The mala-a-u;alai are houses ofwell-to-do families. These are usually occupied by extended families. Although architectural embellishments are present these do not have the panolontj (see below) that characterize the torotjan, nor are these used for official or royal functions. The okil decorations are usually placed in a very organized fashion as on the bases of walls, window sills, and door-jambs.
The torogan has very distinctive features that distinguish it from the tnala-a-u;alai although both are large houses built on stilts about! m (6.5 ft) ofFthe ground. Thetoroijan is marked by features that are symbols of rank and prestige. There are more house-posts, some of which are props. At the front huge trunks of trees are usually used as posts. Since the land is tectonically unstable and often visited by earth tremors, the posts are often placed on top of rounded boulders as a floating foundation. These boulders also prevent direct contact with the ground, preventing the wood from rotting or suffering from termite attack. The posts on the frontage are often carved and decorated with okil motifs.
The most unusual features of the toroijan are the panolongs. These are the ends of the floor beams that project out and flare upwards like triangular butterfly wings on the house frontage and the immediate sides. These panolongs are lavishly-carved with plant motifs like growing ferns, buds and leaves, alternating with the naga or serpendike motifs. The motifs are carved in high relief and painted with bright colours, predominantly green, red, yellow, blue, white and black. Side strips and panels of the house frontage are also similarly decorated. The windows on the facade are also framed with panels that are painted and carved. The horizontal panels below the windows and the base of the walling are similarly treated.
The interior of the house is a cavernous hall that is not per-manentiy partitioned. Holding up the kingposts of the high-ridged roof is a horizontal beam that is ornately carved called therampatan ortinae-a-uialai (intestine of the house).
The interior is partitioned off by the sleeping areas of individual nuclear families placed along both sides ofa central aisle that goes down the middle of the house from the doorway to the rear, where there is usually a common kitchen area. This plan is determined by the fact that several families live in the house since the presence of more than one family increases the prestige of the owner. The sleeping areas serve as all-purpose living places where the family eat their meals on footed trays (talam), weave textiles and receive their guests - the area in fact serves the purpose of an entire house for a single family. Cloth partitions may be brought down from the rafters between sleeping areas to separate one family from another. This allows adjustments of space allocation to individual families, depending on the number actually using the house, without being hindered by permanent partitions.
The ridge of the high rectangular roof is straight and gabled atthe front and back. At the front end of the ridge, usually, is an ornate representation ofa pair of water buffalo horns called a dmngal. The lower half of the roof has a lower incline and has a large overhang over the sides of the house. At times a small room is built above the roof to be used by a beautiful daughter of the house.
The torogan is significant in the Maranao community also because in it could be seen all known decorative okil motifs distinctive of the ethnic group. The ornamentation of the whole structure is undertaken only by the most respected of artisans with rank of datu. The carvings in the structure are used as models by artisans in the embellishment ofall other household artefacts, and even of agricultural ones. As symbols of royalty, dignity, power and the economic statuses of the families who own them, the houses are given names such as bantog (honourable), datumanong (golden lizard) and samporna (authority).

Ifugao ház_szov1202_03.txt

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