2012. július 23., hétfő
Afar kunyhó, Etiópia
3 VII.3.a Afar: Danakil (Djibouti, Eritrea, se, Ethiopia, n)
The Afar peoples are Eastern Hamites who speak a Nilo-Hamitic language and live in a roughly triangular area of the Danakil desert between the high Ethiopian escarpment and the shore of the Red Sea. There are about 250000 Afar living in what is one of the most inhospitable areas on earth, for the most part consisting of dry rocky land, much of it below sea level. There is no rain for nine months ofthe year and temperatures can reach 50 °C (122 °F) in the sun. There is one large river, the Awash, running down into the Danakil desert, but like other smaller rivers it fails to reach the sea and peters out in a series of lakes. The Afars are Muslims and while they have been integrated within an overtly Muslim set of religious attitudes many of their rules pre-date the arrival of Islam.
The people who inhabit this region were known by the Arabs as 'Danakil', but their own name for themselves is 'Afar' pronounced 'arfar'. The Afar are organized in clans and subsections of clans which trace their descent through the male line from a common ancestor.
The Afar economy is based on keeping a range of animals and it is the possession of animals by which a man's wealth is measured. The Afar keep cows, sheep and goats for meat and milk, and camels, horses and donkeys for transport. Since most ofthe Afar's land is a desert of volcanic rock weathered down to sand they are forced to spend much of their time on the move and for much of die year when water and grazing are scarce the whole camp must continually move on to another waterhole or new pastures. The armature mat-covered tent is transported on camels.
The camp is chiefly the women's province. They keep it clean, look after the sheep, goats and milking cows, take care ofthe children and build the mat tents in which the Afar live. The tents are always owned by the women who also make and pitch them. The woman's dowry includes the tent, the bed, and other tent furnishings. It is the men's job to build enclosures for the animals and to do any job that entails moving away from the camp.
The camp is in a circle with two to six tents on the outside enclosed by a thornbush; there is a thornbush corral for the sheep and goats at the centre.