2011. április 12., kedd

Shabono / Shabono

A yanomamö indiánok Venezuela és Brazília határán, az Amazonas menti esőerdők mélyén élnek, építményük egyben a faluközösséget is jelenti. A nagyméretű ovális tető szerkezetét fából építik, a tetőt pálmalevelekkel fedik. A 30-50 méter átmérőt is elérő tető alatt él az egész falu, itt alszanak, itt vannak közös tereik, szakrális tereik és raktáraik. A tető alatt 80-350 ember is lakhat, és minden családnak megvan a maga szakasza, amit nekik is kell felépíteni. Az építmény közepén nagy üres terület van, amit ünnepeken és közös tevékenységeknél használnak a yanomamik.

Shabono 2
Yanomami falu
Képek yanomamikról
Képek 2
Képek 3
Elemző ábrák a shabonoról
Elemző ábrák 2
Egy tanulmány

Farkas István

3.v,l.t Yanoama (Amazonas)
Also known in the ethnographical literature as the Yanomama, Waiko, Shirishana and Guaharibo among other terms and variants, the Yanoama have been the subject of considerable exposure since the mid-1970s, when their territory was threatened by the building of the Trans-Amazon highway, and planned uranium mining. Believed to be the only remaining large tribal complex in Latin America living on its own lands, of some 77000 sq km (^0000 sq mi) in Venezuela and part of Brazil, the Yanoama live in a heavily forested, mountainous region. Keeping away from the river with its troublesome insects, they cultivate plantain as their staple crop, though they are generally classified as 'paleo-lndians', being expert hunters with bow and curare-tipped arrow. Much given to warfare, aggression and revenge, the male Yanoama frequently engaged in raiding other Yanoama villages; a more peaceful image has been projected in over fifty films made about them.
Though Yanoama technology is simple, and accessible to all, it includes certain ingenious devices, including pairs of lashed crossed poles used in tree-climbing, and a sling employed when thatching or working at a height on a building. The most significant item of material culture is tlie inhabited clearing (shabono), which takes a number of related forms. The shabono may be constructed as a single, large dwelling with low walls and a conical roof with a smoke vent, or as a larger building
with a substantial opening at the centre. At its most extreme, it is a continuous peripheral structure surrounding a great plaza, which is, in effect, the roof vent enlarged to create a huge communal space. Differences in size of the shabono are principally determined by the number of people which it is built to accommodate. This may vary due to the complexities of Yanoama social organization, which draws new lineages into an autonomous kin-based residential unit (ten), by the exogamous marriage ties. It also leads to ten fission, producing new groups that may be genealogically related, but separately established and in alliance, or not infrequently, in confier.
Essentially, the shabono is built in sections, or nano-like slices of a pie, each nano being constructed by the man and his family who are to occupy it. The segments are built like the temporary camp shelter (bejefa or yahi), which is used when the Yanoama make their dry season sorties into the forest. Hardwood poles provide the initial framework for such a segment, short ones, approximately 1.5 m (5 ft) high, being placed at the outer periphery, and further posts, twice as high, are made earthfast approximately 3 m (10 ft) nearer to the centre. Horizontal poles are lashed with lianas as purlins and ridge between the pairs of posts. This framework, which places the posts in approximately triangular relationship to each other, is matched by others built by kinsmen and their families within a circle, the number of family units defining the size of the structure and the exposed central space. Many slender saplings, up to 9 m (30 ft) m length, are laid as light rafters over the parallel purlin and ridge so as to produce a canopy frame at an angle of around 30°, cantilevered for some 3 m (10 ft) towards the centre.
Vines or lianas are interwoven successively between the rafter saplings, each providing an attachment for fronds of the bisha palm, some of the leaves being inserted in the row below from within the shelter and bent over the vine to produce a layer of thatch. Successive layers overlap to produce, if well-made

and maintained, a rain-resistant inclined roof, the upper layers on the unsupported cantilevered part, being placed from a scaffold Supporting poles are spaced at intervals to prevent sagging of the cantilever and its burden of thatch which is ter minated bv a suspended fringe of leaves 1 hough there are van ants, for instance in the number of posts used, all shabonos are built in similar fashion
When the individual residential units are complete they ring the central space with a distance of a metre or so between them The gaps are closed and thatched, except where entrances are defined A defensive palisade is built to surround the entire structure Each famih lives within its nano the open front (jcja) facing the clearing, and the small Yanoama hammocks slung between the pole supports in a triangular arrangement about a hearth Calabashes, baskets and gourds hang from the roof frame, while firewood is stacked vertically at the shico, the back of the dwelling, to form a wall I he supported structure is the domain of the famil), the area below the overhanging thatch being a semi-public area, while ceremonies are performed in the central communal space A small shabono mav have onl) si\ hearths and a diameter of 15 m (50 ft), an average one may be over 30 m (100 ft) in diameter and have more than 25 hearths accommodating some 80 people in four or five kinship groups the largest may accommodate double this number and be 60 m (200 ft) across
Beyond the palisade are the garden plots of the ten where cane for arrows, cotton, gourds, tobacco and other plants are grown for various uses and manioc, sweet potatoes, yams and other edible plants are raised in addition to plantains the van eties depending in part on the terrain, the altitude and the pref erences of the widely dispersed Yanoama tribes Complete in Itself the shabono will last for a couple of years before it begins to leak and become infested with insects Sometimes the shabono may be burned down and a new one erected on the same site or within the vicinit) When the ten assimilates other lineage groups or when fission takes place, the shabono is abandoned A new site is cleared nanos built and another is established - part of the cycle of structural processes which perpetually engages the Yanoama and is constituent to their social life Following exposure to the outside world and the visits of missionaries and others, since the 1970s the Yanoama have tended to live nearer to the rivers, building walls to their yahi and sometimes adopting the pitched roofs of their neighbours, the Yekuana


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