2011. május 31., kedd

Irokéz hosszúház / Iroquois Longhouse

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A hagyományos irokéz "hosszú házak": fakeretekkel készültek,kéreglapokkal fedve, közel téglalap alaprajzzal, egy-egy ajtóval és egy boltíves tetővel mindkét végén. Gyakorlatilag egy nyújtott indiánkunyhónak tekinthető. Az európai befolyás hatására később függőleges fallal és nyeregtetővel készültek. A "hosszúházak" rendszerint 22-23 láb (6-7 méter) szélesek és 40-400 láb (12 122 m) hosszúak voltak, attól függően hány család élt benne. Belső osztófalakkal készültek, amelyek az egyes családokat elszeparálták egymástól. A kandallók sorát középre helyezték el,amelyen két család osztozott. Egy átlagos "hosszú házban" 5 tűz és 10 család lakott.

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Radványi Péter

3 VI 3 k Iroquois (ny)
The Iroquois of the i6th centur>' were a confederacy of five nations that lived long an east-west axis is what is now the state of New York Prior to 1712 the Iroquois included the Mohawk Oneida, Onondaga Cayuga and Seneca nations Aftcrthattimethey were joined by the luscaroras Allofthe Iroquois nations spoke Northern Iroquoian languages as did several other nations in the lower Great Lakes basin and adjoining portions ofwhat arc now Ontario, Quebec, New Yoi k and Pennsylvania I heir name derives from a Basque word meaning 'killer people , which was conferred upon them by Basque fishermen visiting the Gulf of St Lawrence in the i6th century I heir own word for themselves is Hodenosaunee people of the longhouse' I he longhouse was once the traditional bark
multi-family residence of all Iroquois, as well as the metaphor for their multinational confederacy Today it is a community building that serves as the social and religious focus for traditional Iroquois
Traditional Iroquois longhouses were bark-covered structures with arched roofs that were typically constructed as three or more living compartments, each 6 m (20 ft) square Long-houses were constructed from skeletons of slender poles, which were sheathed with large sheets of elm bark held down b\ additional external poles A central aisle ran along the axis of the compartments, and storage compartments were built at the entrances at either end of the longhouse Within each compartment a central hearth was shared by two nuclear families, one on either side of the aisle As the clan segment occupying the house grew, new compartments were added, such that long-houses sometimes extended to a dozen or more compartments. I he extended family in each longhouse was organized matri-hneally All female residents were closely related clan sisters, and senior women ran the affairs of the household
Smaller log (stone in the case of one Mohawk community) and later frame houses replaced the longhouse residence in the 18th century Structures called longhouses survived mainly as community buildings from then on The teachings of the Iroquois prophet. Handsome Lake, m the early-igth century revived the use of community longhouses as focuses of traditional reservations that date to that period Non-residential longhouses on modern Iroquois reservations derive from this religious revival
Modern Iroquois houses are usuallv of frame construction and resemble contemporary vernacular Euroamerican structures The Sour Springs longhouse (Six Nations Reserve, Ontario) and a recently constructed new longhouse at Onondaga (New York) are log structures All are about twice as long as they are wide, and are thus roughly equivalent to two compartments of a traditional bark longhouse in size and proportion Benches lining the sides and ends of the longhouses are roughly the same as the sleeping platforms of their prototypes, and stoves at either end replace ancient open hearths 1 here are usually two entrances, either at the ends of the long-house or near the ends on the same or opposite sides I here are examples with central side entrances, and there is archaeological evidence that ancient bark longhouses sometimes had similar side entrances in cases where the houses were unusually long
Prior to the i8th century, Iroquois ceremonies were probably conducted in the centre two compartments of the longhouses of leading families Modern longhouse ceremonies often reveal patterns derived from seating arrangements in the old structures Moieties often sit on opposite sides In the case of local ceremonies, the moieties comprise two unnamed groupings (sides) of clans of which there may be from three to nine, depending upon the nation When the 50 chiefs of the I cague of the Iroquois meet, they too divide into sides, with the Mohawks, Onondagas and Senecas on one side and the other chiefs opposite In the Condolence ceremony the two ends of the longhouse are temporarily partitioned where the bark partition would once have separated the two central compartments

of the ancient longhouse Thus the layout of the longhouse can be viewed as being in four parts, two sides and two ends
Some Senecas and Cayugas emigrated to Oklahoma in the 1830S The Iroquois longhouse built there a century later differs from those in the east It has open sides and is much larger than Its eastern counterparts Eastern reservation longhouses remain important focuses of traditional Iroquois religion and government on the dozen or so reservations where they survive


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